Zebrafish kctd15 expression pattern, loss-of-function and gain-of-function phenotypes. (A-E) Wild-type embryos were hybridized in situ, with probes indicated at lower right, stages shown at lower left. Dorsal views, anterior towards the top (A-D) or left (E). (A,B) Cells in the neural plate border (NPB) express kctd15a and kctd15b. (C) dlx3b (red) and kctd15a (blue) are coexpressed at the NPB. (D,D inset) kctd15a (blue) is excluded from the premigratory neural crest (NC) expressing foxd3 (red). (E) kctd15a expression at 24 hpf. arrows, hindbrain neurons. (F-M) Embryos were injected with RNA (F-I) or MO (J-M). Lateral views, anterior to the left. Overexpression of kctd15a (G, 75/100) and ΔCkctd15a (I, 82/100) results in loss of pigmentation and a short tail, whereas ΔNkctd15a mRNA-injected embryos were normal (H, 60/60). Co-injection of Kctd15a/15b MO results in a small head and abnormal somites (K, 85/100) and subsequently increased dorsal pigmentation (M, 91/100) and loss of jaw elements (M inset, arrowhead). s, somite; t, telencephalon; teg, tegmentum; tg, trigeminal placode; LLP, lateral line primordia. Scale bars: 50 μm in A-D,L,M inset; 80 μm in E; 100 μm in F-M.