Zebrafish Anatomical Dictionary
Structure description: lateral line
pll (posterior lateral line)
all (anterior lateral line)
pllp (posterior lateral line primordium)
allp (anterior lateral line primordium)
pllg (posterior lateral line ganglion)
allg (anterior lateral line ganglion)
There are many other abbreviations for the individual lateral lines and nerve
rami. See Raible and Kruse (2000) for a complete list.
Description: A sensory system
on the surface of the fish, consisting of small sensory patches (neuromasts)
distributed in discrete lines over the body surface. The lateral line system
is stimulated by local water displacements and vibrations, and detects propulsion
of the fish through the water, as well as facilitating shoaling, prey capture,
and predator and obstacle avoidance. In the 4 day larva, there are eight distinct
lateral lines (Raible
and Kruse, 2000):
supraorbital (three neuromasts)
The ventral ramus of the posterior line is the familiar "trunk" or "midbody" line,
formed by the posterior lateral line primordium, the migration of which is used
as a staging tool (Kimmel
et al., 1995).Each neuromast consists of a rosette of hair
cells and supporting cells, with their apical surfaces protruding through
a circular hole in the periderm. The kinocilia and stereocilia of the hair
cells are encased in a gelatinous cupula, visible in the live larva with DIC
optics. Neuromast hair cells are arranged
in one of two opposing polarities; in the trunk, these correspond to the anteroposterior
axis of the body. Hair cells are innervated
by lateral line nerves; cell bodies of afferent neurons sit in cranial anterior
and posterior lateral line ganglia. Three types of efferent neurons have been
described that project axons into the posterior lateral line nerve (Metcalfe
et al., 1985).
infraorbital (four neuromasts)
mandibular (two neuromasts)
opercular (one neuromast)
otic (superior and inferior rami; two neuromasts)
middle (superior and inferior rami; two neuromasts)
occipital (one neuromast)
posterior (dorsal and ventral rami; about 11 neuromasts)
lateral line (present in larvae; also in adults of aquatic
amphibia, such as Xenopus).
- First appears at:
Posterior primordium first visible with DIC optics
at 18-somite stage (18h).
- Disappears (or changes name)
at: Posterior primordium
reaches the end of the tail by long pec stage (50h). The organs deposited
in its wake are now known as neuromasts. Remnants of the posterior primordium
differentiate into neuromasts at the tail tip.
Parents (forms from):
cranial placodal ectoderm (lateral line placodes), anterior
and posterior to the otic vesicle. These give
rise to migratory primordia, which travel beneath the periderm over the body
surface, depositing clusters of cells as they go, which differentiate into the
- Presumptive (thought
to give rise to): Unknown
- Anlage (known to give
rise to): Lateral
line neuromasts, hair cells,, supporting
cells, lateral line ganglia
Group (member of):
- Anatomical (group member):
Peripheral nervous system
- Functional (group member):
Sensory nervous system
Acetylated tubulin (nerve axons; kinocilia of hair
anti-Hu (neuronal cell bodies in all cranial ganglia)
W. K. (1985). Sensory neuron growth cones comigrate with posterior lateral
line primordial cells in zebrafish. Journal of Comparative Neurology 238,
D., and Ghysen, A. (1999). Somatotopy of the lateral line projection in larval
zebrafish. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 96, 7558-7562.
O., Legouis, R., Fasano, L., David-Watine, B., Korn, H., Hardelin, J., and
Petit, C. (2000). Characterization of the two zebrafish orthologues of the
KAL-1 gene underlying X chromosome-linked Kallmann syndrome. Mechanisms
of Development 90, 89-94.
A., Fraser, S. E., and Mabee, P. M. (1994). A dual embryonic origin for
vertebrate mechanoreceptors. Science 264, 426-430.
B., Ballard, W. W., Kimmel, S. R., Ullmann, B., and Schilling, T. F. (1995).
Stages of embryonic development of the zebrafish. Developmental Dynamics
D. J., Murakami, T., Ho, R. K., and Weinberg, E. S. (1997). Regional cell
movement and tissue patterning in the zebrafish embryo revealed by fate
mapping with caged fluorescein. Biochemistry and Cell Biology 75, 551-562.
W. K., Kimmel, C. B., and Schabtach, E. (1985). Anatomy of the posterior
lateral line system in young larvae of the zebrafish. Journal of Comparative
Neurology 233, 377-389.
T., Rüsch, A., Friedrich, R. W., Granato, M., Ruppersberg, J. P., and Nüsslein-Volhard,
C. (1998). Genetic analysis of vertebrate sensory hair cell mechanosensation:
the zebrafish circler mutants. Neuron 20, 271-283.
D. M., Rawls, J. F., Pratt, S. J., Whitfield, T. T., and Johnson, S. L.
(1999). Zebrafish sparse corresponds to an orthologue of c-kit and is required
for the morphogenesis of a subpopulation of melanocytes, but is not essential
for hematopoiesis or primordial germ cell development. Development 126,
D. W., and Kruse, G. J. (2000). Organisation of the lateral line system
in embryonic zebrafish. Journal of Comparative Neurology 421, 189-198.
I., Andermann, P., and Petit, C. (1999). The zebrafish eya1 gene and its
expression pattern during embryogenesis. Development, Genes and Evolution
C., and Nicolson, T. (1999). Defective calmodulin-dependent rapid apical
endocytosis in zebrafish sensory hair cell mutants. Journal of Neurobiology
T. T., Granato, M., van Eeden, F. J. M., Schach, U., Brand, M., Furutani-Seiki,
M., Haffter, P., Hammerschmidt, M., Heisenberg, C.-P., Jiang, Y.-J., Kane,
D. A., Kelsh, R. N., Mullins, M. C., Odenthal, J., and Nüsslein-Volhard,
C. (1996). Mutations affecting development of the zebrafish inner ear and
lateral line. Development 123, 241-254.
A study by (Collazo
et al., 1994) suggests that there may be a small neural crest contribution
to the lateral line.