Zebrafish Rnf12 expression pattern and controls labeled with morpholino-modified antisense oligonucleotides (MO)
(A) Expression profile of zRnf12. The embryonic stages were as follows: 8 cells, 30%
epiboly, 70% epiboly and 24 hours postfertilization (hpf). (B) zRnf12 expression in different embryonic stages was assayed by semi-quantitative PCR. Actin was included as a loading control. Different amount of zRnf12 plasmid template was set as positive controls. Template-free DEPC (diethylpyrocarbonate) water was set as a negative control; Bud-2S, Bud stage to 2 somite stage. Expression analysis of actin was included for loading control.
(C) Rescue by zrnf12 mRNA of rnf12 MO-induced effects on zebrafish embryo morphology and sonic hedgehog (shh) expression. The in vivo phenotype and shh marker indicated that zRnf12 mRNA injections could rescue embryos that were silenced for zRnf12 (zRnf12 morphants). The injection dose for every embryo was 4 ng of the MO mixture (2ng of MO1 and 2 ng MO2 that were pooled) and 300 pg of zRnf12 mRNA. hpf, hours postfertilization. The number of embryos showing the phenotype are indicated.
(D) Analysis of the rnf12 MO-induced downregulation of RNF12 expression. Endogenous zebrafish rnf12 was detected by Western Blot analysis. The last lane represents the positive control embryos that were injected with zRnf12 mRNA at the single-cell stage. Actin was included as a loading control. The injection dose is indicated.
(E) RNF12/Smad7 interaction is evolutionally conserved. HEK293T cells were transfected with Myc-tagged human RNF12 (h) or zebrafish RNF12 (zf) and Flag-tagged Smad7. Cells were treated with MG132 for 4 h before harvesting.
(F) Zebrafish smad7 MO induced a downregulation of Smad7-RFP fusion protein expression. 0.5 ng smad7 MO or/and 100 pg of RFP-Smad7 DNA were co-injected. RFP signal was detected by immufluorescence.
(G) Injection of zebrafish smad7 MO in zebrafish embryos upregulated the expression of phospho-Smad2 and phospho-Smad1/5/8 expression. No effects of zrnf12 MO on total Smad1/5/8 and Smad2 levels were observed. All of embryos were digested at 9 hpf and incubated with phspho-antibodies overnigh. Before digestion, all of yolks were removed.
(H) Analysis of specificity of zebrafish smad7 MO by injecting embryos with smad7 mRNA, or smad7 MO or both and scoring morphology as normal or defective. 0.5 ng smad7 MO or/and 150 pg smad7 mRNA were injected. 16
(I) Flag-Smad6 interacts with Myc-RNF12 and mutant derivatives. HEK293T cells transfected with the indicated plasmids were harvested for immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis. Cells were treated with MG132 for 5 h before harvest.