(A–C, F, G) Alcian blue stained cartilage at 96 hpf, dissected and flat mounted, ventral views, anterior to the left. (A) Wild-type control, (B) dkk1+/ heterozygote, (C) dkk1+/+ homozygote, (F) dntcf3+/ heterozygote, (G) dntcf3+/+ homozygote, heat shocked as described (see Results). Arrowheads indicate clefting of Meckel′s cartilage (Mc). (D) Histogram quantifying the frequency of Mc defects in dkk1+ embryos heat shocked at different stages from 16–36 hpf. (E) Histogram quantifying average Mc length, p<0.01. (H) Histogram quantifying the frequency of cartilage defects in arches 1 and 2 in dntcf3+ embryos heat shocked at different stages from 16–30 hpf. Abbreviations: Ch, ceratohyal; Hm, hyomandibular; Mc, Meckels; Pq, palatoquadrate; Sy, symplectic. Scale bar: 100 µm.