ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-200910-2
The Zebrafish Perivitelline Fluid Provides Maternally-Inherited Defensive Immunity
De la Paz, J.F., Anguita-Salinas, C., Díaz-Celis, C., Chávez, F.P., Allende, M.L.
Date: 2020
Source: Biomolecules   10(9): (Journal)
Registered Authors: Allende, Miguel L.
Keywords: alpha-2-Macroglobulin, chitinase, innate immunity, lectin, maternal immunity, proteomics
MeSH Terms: none
PubMed: 32899417 Full text @ Biomolecules
ABSTRACT
In the teleost egg, the embryo is immersed in an extraembryonic fluid that fills the space between the embryo and the chorion and partially isolates it from the external environment, called the perivitelline fluid (PVF). The exact composition of the PVF remains unknown in vertebrate animals. The PVF allows the embryo to avoid dehydration, to maintain a safe osmotic balance and provides mechanical protection; however, its potential defensive properties against bacterial pathogens has not been reported. In this work, we determined the global proteomic profile of PVF in zebrafish eggs and embryos, and the maternal or zygotic origin of the identified proteins was studied. In silico analysis of PVF protein composition revealed an enrichment of protein classes associated with non-specific humoral innate immunity. We found lectins, protease inhibitors, transferrin, and glucosidases present from early embryogenesis until hatching. Finally, in vitro and in vivo experiments done with this fluid demonstrated that the PVF possessed a strong agglutinating capacity on bacterial cells and protected the embryos when challenged with the pathogenic bacteria Edwardsiella tarda. Our results suggest that the PVF is a primitive inherited immune extraembryonic system that protects the embryos from external biological threats prior to hatching.
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