PUBLICATION

Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 Promotes Differentiation of the Periderm by Activating Expression of Grainyhead-Like 3

Authors
de la Garza, G., Schleiffarth, J.R., Dunnwald, M., Mankad, A., Weirather, J.L., Bonde, G., Butcher, S., Mansour, T.A., Kousa, Y.A., Fukazawa, C.F., Houston, D.W., Manak, J.R., Schutte, B.C., Wagner, D.S., and Cornell, R.A.
ID
ZDB-PUB-120831-1
Date
2013
Source
The Journal of investigative dermatology   133(1): 68-77 (Journal)
Registered Authors
Bonde, Greg, Cornell, Robert, Wagner, Daniel
Keywords
none
MeSH Terms
  • Animals
  • DNA-Binding Proteins/biosynthesis*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics
  • Enhancer Elements, Genetic
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental/genetics
  • Gene Silencing
  • Germ Layers/embryology
  • Germ Layers/growth & development*
  • Germ Layers/metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Interferon Regulatory Factors/metabolism*
  • Keratinocytes/metabolism
  • Mice
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Transcription Factors/biosynthesis*
  • Transcription Factors/genetics
  • Zebrafish/embryology
  • Zebrafish/genetics
  • Zebrafish Proteins/biosynthesis*
  • Zebrafish Proteins/genetics
  • Zebrafish Proteins/metabolism*
PubMed
22931925 Full text @ J. Invest. Dermatol.
Abstract

IFN regulatory factor 6 (IRF6) is a transcription factor that, in mammals, is required for the differentiation of skin, breast epithelium, and oral epithelium. However, the transcriptional targets that mediate these effects are currently unknown. In zebrafish and frog embryos, Irf6 is necessary for differentiation of the embryonic superficial epithelium, or periderm. Here we use microarrays to identify genes that are expressed in the zebrafish periderm and whose expression is inhibited by a dominant-negative variant of Irf6 (dnIrf6). These methods identify Grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3), an ancient regulator of the epidermal permeability barrier, as acting downstream of Irf6. In human keratinocytes, IRF6 binds conserved elements near the GHRL3 promoter. We show that one of these elements has enhancer activity in human keratinocytes and zebrafish periderm, suggesting that Irf6 directly stimulates Grhl3 expression in these tissues. Simultaneous inhibition of grhl1 and grhl3 disrupts periderm differentiation in zebrafish, and, intriguingly, forced grhl3 expression restores periderm markers in both zebrafish injected with dnIrf6 and frog embryos depleted of Irf6. Finally, in Irf6-deficient mouse embryos, Grhl3 expression in the periderm and oral epithelium is virtually absent. These results indicate that Grhl3 is a key effector of Irf6 in periderm differentiation.

Genes / Markers
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Expression
Phenotype
Mutation and Transgenics
Human Disease / Model Data
Sequence Targeting Reagents
Fish
Antibodies
Orthology
Engineered Foreign Genes
Mapping
Errata and Notes