Zebrafish are a unique model for pharmacological manipulation of physiological processes such as inflammation; they are small and permeable to many small molecular compounds, and being transparent, they permit the visualization and quantitation of the inflammatory response by observation of transgenically labeled inflammatory cell populations. Using a transgenic line specifically labeling neutrophils in vivo (mpx:GFP), we studied the effects of a range of pharmacological agents on the resolution of inflammation in vivo. These agents were selected for their ability to modulate neutrophil function and lifespan in human neutrophils in vitro. Agents delaying neutrophil apoptosis (LPS, dbcAMP, and several caspase inhibitors) all lead to a delay in resolution of neutrophilic inflammation. Reciprocally, pyocyanin and roscovitine (inducers of neutrophil apoptosis) lead to reduced neutrophil numbers. The occurrence of apoptosis was observed by time-lapse analysis and confirmed by dual staining for neutrophil-specific mpx activity (TSA staining) and an apoptotic marker (TUNEL). During inflammation, macrophages follow neutrophils into the inflamed site, and TUNEL/TSA dual-positive material can be demonstrated within macrophages, consistent with their uptake of apoptotic neutrophils. This model has several advantages over mammalian models and lends itself to the study of pharmaceutical agents modulating inflammation.