|ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-090422-17|
Potential roles of arnt2 in zebrafish larval development
Hill, A.J., Heiden, T.C., Heideman, W., and Peterson, R.E.
|Source:||Zebrafish 6(1): 79-91 (Journal)|
|Registered Authors:||Heideman, Warren, Hill, Adrian, Peterson, Richard E.|
|PubMed:||19374551 Full text @ Zebrafish|
Hill, A.J., Heiden, T.C., Heideman, W., and Peterson, R.E. (2009) Potential roles of arnt2 in zebrafish larval development. Zebrafish. 6(1):79-91.
ABSTRACTThe aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) is a basic helix-loop-helix-PAS heterodimeric transcription factor that dimerizes with other basic helix-loop-helix-PAS proteins to mediate biological responses. The function of ARNT2 is poorly understood. Here we provide an initial characterization of the zebrafish arnt2 null (arnt2(-/-)) mutant to identify functions of Arnt2 during development. Arnt2(-/-) mutant zebrafish develop normally until 120 hours postfertilization (hpf ) when morphological changes and functional deficits occur. The C-start escape response initiated by either touch or startle stimuli is absent in the mutants. Brain ventricle size is markedly increased at 120 hpf. Heart ventricles are enlarged, with decreased ventricle wall thickness. A cardiac arrhythmia, characterized by missing beats, is also observed in the mutants. This is associated with bradycardia in arnt2(-/-) larvae. Dilated liver sinusoids merge abnormally to form an extensive, labyrinth-like network of vascular channels. External appearance of arnt2(-/-) larvae at 120 hpf is indistinguishable from wild type except that the swim bladder is not inflated. The arnt2(-/-) mutants are not debilitated when phenotypic effects are first detected at 120 hpf that culminate in mortality, 4 days later around 216 hpf. Gross morphological assessment of the development of forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain regions, neuromasts and Mauthner neurons, inner ear semicircular canals and otoliths, primary motor neurons, trigeminal ganglia, and trunk skeletal muscles, before or when the arnt2(-/-) phenotype was observed, failed to demonstrate a difference from wild type. The only effect in arnt2(-/-) larvae that occurred before 120 hpf was a decrease in expression of sim1, an Arnt2 dimerization partner, in the hypothalamus and ventral thalamus at 72 hpf. Further research is needed to determine if the primary functions of Arnt2 occur during the larval stage, when the phenotype is observed, or earlier in development.