ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-031119-3
reg6 is required for branching morphogenesis during blood vessel regeneration in zebrafish caudal fins
Huang, C., Lawson, N.D., Weinstein, B.M., and Johnson, S.L.
Postnatal neovascularization is essential for wound healing, cancer progression, and many other physiological functions. However, its genetic mechanism is largely unknown. In this report, we study neovascularization in regenerating adult zebrafish fins using transgenic fish that express EGFP in blood vessel endothelial cells. We first describe the morphogenesis of regenerating vessels in wild-type animals and then the phenotypic analysis of a genetic mutation that disrupts blood vessel regeneration. In wild-type zebrafish caudal fins, amputated blood vessels heal their ends by 24 h postamputation (hpa) and then reconnect arteries and veins via anastomosis, to resume blood flow at wound sites by 48 hpa. The truncated vessels regenerate by first growing excess vessels to form unstructured plexuses, resembling the primary capillary plexuses formed during embryonic vasculogenesis. Interestingly, this mode of vessel growth switches by 8 days postamputation (dpa) to growth without a plexus intermediate. During blood vessel regeneration, vessel remodeling begins during early plexus formation and continues until the original vasculature pattern is reestablished at approximately 35 dpa. Temperature-sensitive mutants for reg6 have profound defects in blood vessel regeneration. At the restrictive temperature, reg6 regenerating blood vessels first fail to make reconnections between severed arteries and veins, and then form enlarged vascular sinuses rather than branched vascular plexuses. Reciprocal temperature-shift experiments show that reg6 function is required throughout plexus formation, but not during later growth. Our results suggest that the reg6 mutation causes defects in branch formation and/or angiogenic sprouting.