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Gene Tools, LLC
Contact Person: Moulton, Jon D.
Email: mail@gene-tools.com
URL: http://www.gene-tools.com
Address: 1001 Summerton Way Philomath,OR 97370 USA
Country: United States
Phone: 541-929-7840
Fax: 541-929-7841
Line Designation: None assigned

Morpholino Antisense Oligos

We supply the developmental biology research community with Morpholino antisense oligos. Morpholinos are used to knock down gene expression and block pre-mRNA splicing events (see the key zebrafish references below). Morpholinos are superior for microinjection over other antisense structural types as they are non-toxic in embryos, have predictable targeting and excellent sequence specificity with minimal non-antisense activity. Gene Tools provides a free Morpholino oligo design service for its customers. Contact us for details.


Nasevicius A and Ekker SC (2000). Effective targeted gene "knockdown" in zebrafish. Nature Genetics 26(2):216-220.

Ross JJ et al (2001) Twisted gastrulation is a conserved extracellular BMP antagonist. Nature 410(6827):479-483.

Draper B.W., PA Morcos, and CB Kimmel. (2001) Inhibition of Zebrafish fgf8 pre-mRNA splicing with morpholino oligos: a quantifiable method for gene knockdown. Genesis 30:154-156

Review Article
James Summerton. Morpholino antisense oligomers: the case for an RNase H-independent structural type. Biochemica et Biophysica Acta 1489 (1999)141-158

Review Article
James Summerton and Dwight Weller. Morpholino Antisense Oligomers: Design, Preparation and Properties. Antisense and Nucleic Acid Drug Development 7 (1997) 187-195

Partridge M, Vincent A, Matthews P, Puma J, Stein D, Summerton J. A simple method for delivering morpholino antisense oligos into the cytoplasm of cells. Antisense Nucleic Acid Drug Dev. 1996 Fall;6(3):169-75.

Morcos, Paul A. Technical Moulton, Jon D. Technical Vincent, Alexandra Technical

Morcos, P.A., Vincent, A.C., Moulton, J.D. (2015) Gene Editing Versus Morphants. Zebrafish. 12:319
Lagendijk, A.K., Moulton, J.D., and Bakkers, J. (2012) Revealing details: whole mount microRNA in situ hybridization protocol for zebrafish embryos and adult tissues. Biology Open. 1(6):566-569
Tallafuss, A., Gibson, D., Morcos, P., Li, Y., Seredick, S., Eisen, J., and Washbourne, P. (2012) Turning gene function ON and OFF using sense and antisense photo-morpholinos in zebrafish. Development (Cambridge, England). 139(9):1691-1699
Eisenhoffer, G.T., Loftus, P.D., Yoshigi, M., Otsuna, H., Chien, C.B., Morcos, P.A., and Rosenblatt, J. (2012) Crowding induces live cell extrusion to maintain homeostatic cell numbers in epithelia. Nature. 484(7395):546-549
Madsen, E.C., Morcos, P.A., Mendelsohn, B.A., and Gitlin, J.D. (2008) In vivo correction of a Menkes disease model using antisense oligonucleotides. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 105(10):3909-3914
Kloosterman, W.P., Lagendijk, A.K., Ketting, R.F., Moulton, J.D., and Plasterk, R.H. (2007) Targeted Inhibition of miRNA Maturation with Morpholinos Reveals a Role for miR-375 in Pancreatic Islet Development. PLoS Biology. 5(8):e203
Moulton, J.D. (2007) Using Morpholinos to Control Gene Expression. Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry. Suppl 27:Unit 4.30
Liu, D., Chu, H., Maves, L., Yan, Y.-L., Morcos, P.A., Postlethwait, J.H., and Westerfield, M. (2003) Fgf3 and Fgf8 dependent and independent transcription factors are required for otic placode specification. Development (Cambridge, England). 130(10):2213-2224
Yan, Y.-L., Miller, C.T., Nissen, R.M., Singer, A., Liu, D., Kirn, A., Draper, B., Willoughby, J., Morcos, P.A., Amsterdam, A., Chung, B.-C., Westerfield, M., Haffter, P., Hopkins, N., Kimmel, C., and Postlethwait, J.H. (2002) A zebrafish sox9 gene required for cartilage morphogenesis. Development (Cambridge, England). 129(21):5065-5079
Draper, B.W., Morcos, P.A., and Kimmel, C.B. (2001) Inhibition of zebrafish fgf8 pre-mRNA splicing with morpholino oligos: A quantifiable method for gene knockdown. Genesis (New York, N.Y. : 2000). 30(3):154-156