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Pharyngeal arch bone that is bilaterally paired and articulates laterally with ceratobranchial cartilage or bone. Epibranchials are dorsal parts of the gill arches. Epibranchials 1-4 ossify in the epibranchial cartilages in a posterior to anterior progression. Gill rakers are present on the anterior and posterior edges of epibranchials 2 and 4 and the posterior edge of epibranchial 1. A reduced gill raker is present on the anterior margin of epibranchial 1 in some specimens.