Kimmel, C.B. and Law, R.D. (1985) Cell lineage of zebrafish blastomeres. II. Formation of the yolk syncytial layer. Developmental Biology. 108:86-93.
Dye coupling and cell lineages of blastomeres that participate in the formation of the yolk syncytial layer (YSL) in the zebrafish Brachydanio rerio have been examined. The YSL is a multinucleate layer of nonyolky cytoplasm underlying the cellular blastoderm at one pole of the giant yolk cell. It forms at the time of the 10th (sometimes 9th) cleavage by a collapse of a set of blastomeres, termed marginal blastomeres, into the yolk cell. Marginal blastomeres possess cytoplasmic bridges to the yolk cell before the YSL forms, and injections of fluorescein-dextran into the cells revealed that bridges between the yolk cell and blastoderm do not persist after this time. Injections of Lucifer yellow revealed that shortly after the YSL forms the yolk cell and blastoderm are dye coupled, presumably by gap junctions, and that this coupling disappears gradually during early gastrulation. Lineage analyses revealed that not all of the progeny of early marginal blastomeres participate in YSL formation. Although some descendants of marginal blastomeres remained on the margin during successive cleavages, neither "compartment" nor "strict lineage" models are sufficient to explain the origin of the YSL. It is proposed that the position of a cell on the blastoderm margin, and not the cell's lineage, determines YSL cell fate.