In zebrafish, individual primary motoneurons can be uniquely identified by their characteristic cell body positions and axonal projection patterns. The fate of individual primary motoneurons remains plastic until just prior to axogenesis when they become committed to particular identities. We find that distinct primary motoneurons express particular combinations of LIM homeobox genes. Expression precedes axogenesis as well as commitment, suggesting that LIM homeobox genes may contribute to the specification of motoneuronal fates. By transplanting them to new spinal cord positions, we demonstrate that primary motoneurons can initiate a new program of LIM homeobox gene expression, as well as the morphological features appropriate for the new position. We conclude that the patterned distribution of different primary motoneuronal types within the zebrafish spinal cord follows the patterned expression of LIM homeobox genes, and that this reflects a highly resolved system of positional information controlling gene transcription.