|ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-961014-463|
Retinoic acid modifies development of the midbrain-hindbrain border and affects cranial ganglion formation in zebrafish embryos
Holder, N. and Hill, J.
|Source:||Development (Cambridge, England) 113: 1159-1170 (Journal)|
|Registered Authors:||Hill, James, Holder, Nigel|
Holder, N. and Hill, J. (1991) Retinoic acid modifies development of the midbrain-hindbrain border and affects cranial ganglion formation in zebrafish embryos. Development (Cambridge, England). 113:1159-1170.
ABSTRACTConsiderable evidence now suggests that retinoic acid (RA) is an important modulator of patterning events in early neuronal development in vertebrates. In this paper, we describe the effects of exogenously applied RA on early neural development in the zebrafish embryo. Neural anatomy is assessed by immunocytochemical and histochemical analysis of the developing embryo in whole mounts at 24 h post-fertilization. RA was applied for one hour at concentrations ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-6) M to embryos at 50% epiboly, the midgastrula stage, and at 10(-7) M to embryos at early and late gastrula stages. The neuroanatomical analysis shows that 10(-7) M RA causes a defined lesion to the developing central nervous system which corresponds to a loss of a region of the brain in the caudal midbrain-rostral hindbrain area, the precursor of the cerebellum and associated neural structures. The region that fails to develop corresponds to the cranial expression domain of the engrailed protein as assessed by the monoclonal antibody 4D9 (Patel et al. 1989: Expression of engrailed proteins in arthropods, annelids and chordates. Cell 58, 955-968). Structures caudal to rhombomere 4 are unaffected by 10(-7) M RA, as are the cranial midbrain and forebrain: 10(-7) M RA also affects the development of cranial ganglia, principally the Vth, anterior lateral line and VIIIth ganglia, suggesting that RA affects normal development of the cranial neural crest. Effects of RA at stages immediately prior to and after gastrulation show some similar and some distinct features. Results are discussed in terms of the possible role of RA as an endogenous moderator of normal head development.
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