|ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-961014-125|
Rainbow trout and zebrafish, two models for continuous toxicity tests: relative sensitivity species and organ specificity in cytopathologic reaction of liver and intestines to atrazine
Braunbeck, T., Burkhardt-Holm, P., Gorge, G., Nagel, R., Negele, R.D., and Storch, V.
|Source:||Schriftenr-Ver-Wasser-Boden-Lufthyg. 89: 109-145 (Journal)|
|Registered Authors:||Braunbeck, Thomas, Nagel, Roland|
Braunbeck, T., Burkhardt-Holm, P., Gorge, G., Nagel, R., Negele, R.D., and Storch, V. (1992) Rainbow trout and zebrafish, two models for continuous toxicity tests: relative sensitivity species and organ specificity in cytopathologic reaction of liver and intestines to atrazine. Schriftenr-Ver-Wasser-Boden-Lufthyg.. 89:109-145.
ABSTRACTIn order to elucidate cytopathological alterations in hepatic and intestinal cells, immature rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed for five weeks to 10, 20, 40, and 160 micrograms/l of the herbicide atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino- 6-isopropylamino-s-triazine; model 1). For comparison, ultrastructural changes in female zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) liver were studied after exposure to 100, 1,000 and 10,000 micrograms/l atrazine for three months (exposure from egg stage to sexual maturation; model 2). Neither epithelial nor glandular cells in the gastrointestinal tract of rainbow trout reveal cytological modifications following exposure to atrazine. In contrast, hepatocytes of rainbow trout and zebra fish clearly display dose-dependent and species-specific cytopathological effects at 40 and 1000 micrograms/l, respectively. In rainbow trout (model 1), rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) appears of particular diagnostic value for the effects of atrazine, since it already shows a full spectrum of cytological alterations after 40 micrograms/l, and since in cells without RER modifications no further cytopathological symptoms can be revealed. At 40 micrograms/l atrazine, further changes include disturbance of the intracellular compartmentation, increased heterogeneity of mitochondria (longitudinally arranged cristae, branching, size), formation of myelinated bodies as well as immigration of macrophages and granulocytes along the biliary system and the space of Disse. The separation of peripheral storage areas from the central organelle-containing cytoplasm is no longer evident at 80 micrograms/l, and the phagocytic activity of invading macrophages is drastically increased. Following exposure to 160 micrograms/l atrazine, additional pathological changes comprise clubshaped deformation of mitochondria, formation of myelinated bodies in the intermembranous space of mitochondria, increase of degranulated ER cisternae and lysosomes, as well as perisinusoidal accumulation of lipid droplets. Deformation of the nuclear envelope, elevated mitotic activity and an increased number of nuclei with two or more nucleoli indicate interactions between atrazine and the nucleus. In the liver of female zebra fish (model 2), atrazine-induced alterations are limited to increased parenchymal variability, disturbance of the intracellular compartmentation, partial RER fractionation and vesiculation, club-shaped deformation of mitochondria and an increase in the number of lysosomes, myelinated bodies and invading macrophages at 1000 micrograms/l atrazine. After three months at 10,000 micrograms/l, mortality of zebra fish is increased to 100%. According to cytopathological alterations of hepatocytes following long-term exposure, susceptibility of the test model rainbow trout to atrazine appears higher than that of the model zebra fish.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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ERRATA and NOTES[Article in German]