Intergenerational toxic effects of parental exposure to [Cn mim]NO3 (n = 2,4,6) on nervous and skeletal development in zebrafish offspring

Lu, X., He, Y., Liu, Y., Wang, X.P., Xue, Y.L., Zheng, Z.Y., Duan, S.Y., Kong, H.L., Zhang, R.Z., Huang, J.L., Deng, J., Duan, P.
Environmental toxicology   38(9): 2204-2218 (Journal)
Registered Authors
He, Yan
[Cnmim]NO3 (n = 2, 4, 6), intergenerational toxicity, ionic liquids, nervous and skeletal development, zebrafish
MeSH Terms
  • Animals
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Ionic Liquids*/toxicity
  • Male
  • Spermatogenesis
  • Testis
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical*/metabolism
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical*/toxicity
  • Zebrafish/metabolism
37300850 Full text @ Env. Tox.
Ionic liquids (ILs) are thought to have negative effects on human health. Researchers have explored the effects of ILs on zebrafish development during the early stages, but the intergenerational toxicity of ILs on zebrafish development has rarely been reported. Herein, parental zebrafish were exposed to different concentrations (0, 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/L) of [Cn mim]NO3 (n = 2, 4, 6) for 1 week. Subsequently, the F1 offspring were cultured in clean water for 96 h. [Cn mim]NO3 (n = 2, 4, 6) exposure inhibited spermatogenesis and oogenesis in F0 adults, even causing obvious lacunae in the testis and atretic follicle oocytes in ovary. After parental exposure to [Cn mim]NO3 (n = 2, 4, 6), the body length and locomotor behavior were measured in F1 larvae at 96 hours post-fertilization (hpf). The results showed that the higher the concentration of [Cn mim]NO3 (n = 2, 4, 6), the shorter the body length and swimming distance, and the longer the immobility time. Besides, a longer alkyl chain length of [Cn mim]NO3 had a more negative effect on body length and locomotor behavior. RNA-seq analysis revealed several downregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs)-grin1b, prss1, gria3a, and gria4a-enriched in neurodevelopment-related pathways, particularly the pathway for neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction. Moreover, several upregulated DEGs, namely col1a1a, col1a1b, and acta2, were mainly associated with skeletal development. Expression of DEGs was tested by RT-qPCR, and the outcomes were consistent with those obtained from RNA-Seq. We provide evidence showing the effects of parental exposure to ILs on the regulation of nervous and skeletal development in F1 offspring, demonstrating intergenerational effects.
Genes / Markers
Mutations / Transgenics
Human Disease / Model
Sequence Targeting Reagents
Engineered Foreign Genes