Dietary Succinate Impacts the Nutritional Metabolism, Protein Succinylation and Gut Microbiota of Zebrafish

Ding, Q., Lu, C., Hao, Q., Zhang, Q., Yang, Y., Olsen, R.E., Ringo, E., Ran, C., Zhang, Z., Zhou, Z.
Frontiers in nutrition   9: 894278 (Journal)
Registered Authors
Ding, Qianwen, Ran, Chao, Yang, Yalin, Zhang, Zhen, Zhou, Zhigang
glucose homeostasis, gut microbiota, nutritional metabolism, protein succinylation, succinate
MeSH Terms
35685883 Full text @ Front Nutr
Succinate is widely used in the food and feed industry as an acidulant, flavoring additive, and antimicrobial agent. This study investigated the effects of dietary succinate on growth, energy budget, nutritional metabolism, protein succinylation, and gut microbiota composition of zebrafish. Zebrafish were fed a control-check (0% succinate) or four succinate-supplemented diets (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.2%) for 4 weeks. The results showed that dietary succinate at the 0.15% additive amount (S0.15) can optimally promote weight gain and feed intake. Whole body protein, fat, and energy deposition increased in the S0.15 group. Fasting plasma glucose level decreased in fish fed the S0.15 diet, along with improved glucose tolerance. Lipid synthesis in the intestine, liver, and muscle increased with S0.15 feeding. Diet with 0.15% succinate inhibited intestinal gluconeogenesis but promoted hepatic gluconeogenesis. Glycogen synthesis increased in the liver and muscle of S0.15-fed fish. Glycolysis was increased in the muscle of S0.15-fed fish. In addition, 0.15% succinate-supplemented diet inhibited protein degradation in the intestine, liver, and muscle. Interestingly, different protein succinylation patterns in the intestine and liver were observed in fish fed the S0.15 diet. Intestinal proteins with increased succinylation levels were enriched in the tricarboxylic acid cycle while proteins with decreased succinylation levels were enriched in pathways related to fatty acid and amino acid degradation. Hepatic proteins with increased succinylation levels were enriched in oxidative phosphorylation while proteins with decreased succinylation levels were enriched in the processes of protein processing and transport in the endoplasmic reticulum. Finally, fish fed the S0.15 diet had a higher abundance of Proteobacteria but a lower abundance of Fusobacteria and Cetobacterium. In conclusion, dietary succinate could promote growth and feed intake, promote lipid anabolism, improve glucose homeostasis, and spare protein. The effects of succinate on nutritional metabolism are associated with alterations in the levels of metabolic intermediates, transcriptional regulation, and protein succinylation levels. However, hepatic fat accumulation and gut microbiota dysbiosis induced by dietary succinate suggest potential risks of succinate application as a feed additive for fish. This study would be beneficial in understanding the application of succinate as an aquatic feed additive.
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