Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Attenuates Recurrent Seizures Associated Cardiac Damage in a Zebrafish Kindling Model of Chronic Epilepsy

Sharma, S., Rana, A.K., Sharma, A., Singh, D.
Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology : the official journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology   17(1-2): 334-349 (Journal)
Registered Authors
Cardiac tissue, Epilepsy, Mammalian target of rapamycin, Oxidative stress, Stat3, Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy
MeSH Terms
  • Animals
  • Epilepsy*/drug therapy
  • Mammals
  • Rats
  • Seizures/drug therapy
  • Sirolimus/pharmacology
  • Sirolimus/therapeutic use
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Zebrafish*
34537895 Full text @ J. Neuroimmune Pharmacol.
Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) is primarily linked with the cardiac irregularities that occur due to recurrent seizures. Our previous studies found a role of mTOR pathway activation in seizures-linked cardiac damage in a rat model. In continuation to the earlier work, the present study was devised to explore the role of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor and clinically used immunosuppressive agent) in a zebrafish kindling model and associated cardiac damage. Adult zebrafish were incubated with increasing concentrations of rapamycin (1, 2 and, 4 μM), followed by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) exposure to record seizure latency and severity. In another experiment, zebrafish were subjected to a standardized PTZ kindling protocol. The kindled fish were treated daily with rapamycin for up to 25 days, along with PTZ to record seizure severity. At the end, zebrafish heart was excised for carbonylation assay, gene expression, and protein quantification studies. In the acute PTZ convulsion test, treatment with rapamycin showed a significant increase in seizure latency and decreased seizure severity without any change in seizure incidence. Treatment with rapamycin also reduced the severity of seizures in kindled fish. The cardiac expressions of gpx, nppb, kcnh2, scn5a, mapk8, stat3, rps6 and ddit were decreased, whereas the levels of trxr2 and beclin 1 were increased following rapamycin treatment in kindled fish. Furthermore, rapamycin treatment also decreased p-mTOR expression and protein carbonyls level in the fish cardiac tissue. The present study concluded that rapamycin reduces seizures and associated cardiac damage by inhibiting mTOR activation in the zebrafish kindling model.
Genes / Markers
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Mutations / Transgenics
Human Disease / Model
Sequence Targeting Reagents
Engineered Foreign Genes