ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-210407-1
Diversity and robustness of bone morphogenetic protein pattern formation
Madamanchi, A., Mullins, M.C., Umulis, D.M.
Date: 2021
Source: Development (Cambridge, England)   148(7): (Review)
Registered Authors: Mullins, Mary C.
Keywords: Axis formation, BMP patterning, Drosophila, Morphogen gradient, Zebrafish
MeSH Terms:
  • Animals
  • Body Patterning/genetics
  • Body Patterning/physiology*
  • Bone Development*
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins/genetics
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins/metabolism*
  • Bone and Bones
  • Drosophila/metabolism
  • Drosophila Proteins/metabolism
  • Drosophila melanogaster/metabolism
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian/metabolism
  • Embryonic Development*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Signal Transduction
  • Xenopus laevis/embryology
  • Xenopus laevis/metabolism
  • Zebrafish/embryology
  • Zebrafish/metabolism
  • Zebrafish Proteins
PubMed: 33795238 Full text @ Development
Pattern formation by bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) demonstrates remarkable plasticity and utility in several contexts, such as early embryonic development, tissue patterning and the maintenance of stem cell niches. BMPs pattern tissues over many temporal and spatial scales: BMP gradients as short as 1-2 cell diameters maintain the stem cell niche of the Drosophila germarium over a 24-h cycle, and BMP gradients of several hundred microns establish dorsal-ventral tissue specification in Drosophila, zebrafish and Xenopus embryos in timescales between 30 min and several hours. The mechanisms that shape BMP signaling gradients are also incredibly diverse. Although ligand diffusion plays a dominant role in forming the gradient, a cast of diffusible and non-diffusible regulators modulate gradient formation and confer robustness, including scale invariance and adaptability to perturbations in gene expression and growth. In this Review, we document the diverse ways that BMP gradients are formed and refined, and we identify the core principles that they share to achieve reliable performance.