ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-191128-2
Shaping the zebrafish myotome by intertissue friction and active stress
Tlili, S., Yin, J., Rupprecht, J.F., Mendieta-Serrano, M.A., Weissbart, G., Verma, N., Teng, X., Toyama, Y., Prost, J., Saunders, T.E.
Date: 2019
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America   116(51): 25430-25439 (Journal)
Registered Authors: Saunders, Timothy Edward
Keywords: organ morphogenesis, somitogenesis, tissue mechanics, vertex models
MeSH Terms:
  • Animals
  • Biomechanical Phenomena/physiology
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian/cytology
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian/physiology
  • Embryonic Development/physiology
  • Friction/physiology*
  • Models, Biological
  • Muscles*/cytology
  • Muscles*/embryology
  • Single-Cell Analysis
  • Somites*/cytology
  • Somites*/embryology
  • Zebrafish
PubMed: 31772022 Full text @ Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
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ABSTRACT
Organ formation is an inherently biophysical process, requiring large-scale tissue deformations. Yet, understanding how complex organ shape emerges during development remains a major challenge. During zebrafish embryogenesis, large muscle segments, called myotomes, acquire a characteristic chevron morphology, which is believed to aid swimming. Myotome shape can be altered by perturbing muscle cell differentiation or the interaction between myotomes and surrounding tissues during morphogenesis. To disentangle the mechanisms contributing to shape formation of the myotome, we combine single-cell resolution live imaging with quantitative image analysis and theoretical modeling. We find that, soon after segmentation from the presomitic mesoderm, the future myotome spreads across the underlying tissues. The mechanical coupling between the future myotome and the surrounding tissues appears to spatially vary, effectively resulting in spatially heterogeneous friction. Using a vertex model combined with experimental validation, we show that the interplay of tissue spreading and friction is sufficient to drive the initial phase of chevron shape formation. However, local anisotropic stresses, generated during muscle cell differentiation, are necessary to reach the acute angle of the chevron in wild-type embryos. Finally, tissue plasticity is required for formation and maintenance of the chevron shape, which is mediated by orientated cellular rearrangements. Our work sheds light on how a spatiotemporal sequence of local cellular events can have a nonlocal and irreversible mechanical impact at the tissue scale, leading to robust organ shaping.
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