ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-190206-8
3-ketodihydrosphingosine reductase mutation induces steatosis and hepatic injury in zebrafish
Park, K.H., Ye, Z.W., Zhang, J., Hammad, S.M., Townsend, D.M., Rockey, D.C., Kim, S.H.
3-ketodihydrosphingosine reductase (KDSR) is the key enzyme in the de novo sphingolipid synthesis. We identified a novel missense kdsrI105R
mutation in zebrafish that led to a loss of function, and resulted in progression of hepatomegaly to steatosis, then hepatic injury phenotype. Lipidomics analysis of the kdsrI105R
mutant revealed compensatory activation of the sphingolipid salvage pathway, resulting in significant accumulation of sphingolipids including ceramides, sphingosine and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Ultrastructural analysis revealed swollen mitochondria with cristae damage in the kdsrI105R
mutant hepatocytes, which can be a cause of hepatic injury in the mutant. We found elevated sphingosine kinase 2 (sphk2) expression in the kdsrI105R
mutant. Genetic interaction analysis with the kdsrI105R
and the sphk2wc1
mutants showed that sphk2 depletion suppressed liver defects observed in the kdsrI105R
mutant, suggesting that liver defects were mediated by S1P accumulation. Further, both oxidative stress and ER stress were completely suppressed by deletion of sphk2 in kdsrI105R
mutants, linking these two processes mechanistically to hepatic injury in the kdsrI105R
mutants. Importantly, we found that the heterozygous mutation in kdsr induced predisposed liver injury in adult zebrafish. These data point to kdsr as a novel genetic risk factor for hepatic injury.