ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-181013-8
Toxicity profiling of flame retardants in zebrafish embryos using a battery of assays for developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity toward human relevance
Alzualde, A., Behl, M., Sipes, N.S., Hsieh, J.H., Alday, A., Tice, R.R., Paules, R.S., Muriana, A., Quevedo, C.
Date: 2018
Source: Neurotoxicology and teratology   70: 40-50 (Journal)
Registered Authors: Alzualde, Ainhoa, Muriana, Arantza, Quevedo, Celia
Keywords: Cardiotoxicity, Developmental toxicity, Flame retardants, Hepatotoxicity, Internal concentration, Neurotoxicity, Zebrafish
MeSH Terms:
  • Animals
  • Cardiotoxicity/etiology
  • Embryonic Development/drug effects*
  • Flame Retardants/toxicity*
  • Humans
  • Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology
  • Organophosphates/pharmacology
  • Organophosphates/toxicity*
  • Organophosphorus Compounds/toxicity*
  • Zebrafish
PubMed: 30312655 Full text @ Neurotoxicol. Teratol.
Following the voluntary phase-out of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) due to their environmental persistence and toxicity, the organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) are emerging replacements. However, there is limited information on the potential human health effects of the OPFRs. Zebrafish embryos are a viable vertebrate model organism with many advantages for high throughput testing toward human hazard assessment. We utilized zebrafish embryos to assess developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity, of eight replacement OPFRs: (triphenyl phosphate [TPHP], isopropylated phenyl phosphate [IPP], 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate [EHDP], tert-butylated phenyl diphenyl phosphate [BPDP], trimethyl phenyl phosphate [TMPP], isodecyl diphenyl phosphate [IDDP], tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate [TDCIPP], and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate [TCEP]) and two BFRs (3,3',5,5'- tetrabromobisphenol A [TBBPA] and 2,2'4,4'-brominated diphenyl ether [BDE-47]). To determine potential effects on teratogenicity, embryos were exposed to flame retardants (FRs) from 3 to 5 h post fertilization (hpf) to 4 days post fertilization (dpf) and morphological alterations and corresponding survival were evaluated at 2 and 4 dpf. Internal concentrations were measured in larvae used in this assay by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Locomotor activity was assessed in larvae treated for 48 h (from 3 dpf to 5 dpf), followed by hepatotoxicity evaluation. Finally, alterations in heart rate and rhythmicity were assessed to determine cardiotoxicity in 48 hpf embryos exposed to compounds for 3 h. Results suggest that several OPFRs (BPDP, EHDP; IPP, TMPP; TPHP and TDCIPP) produced adverse effects in multiple target organs at concentrations comparable to the two BFRs. As these OPFRs have the capacity to disrupt an integrated vertebrate model, they potentially have the capacity to affect mammalian biology. Then, we compared the lowest effective levels (LEL) in zebrafish with estimated or measured human plasma concentrations using biomonitoring data (human plasma, breast milk, handwipe samples and house dust) and a high throughput toxicokinetic (HTTK) model. Results indicate that for some compounds, the nominal LELs were within the range of human exposures, while internal LELs in zebrafish are above internal exposures in humans. These findings demonstrate the value of the zebrafish model as a relevant screening tool and support the need for further hazard characterization of the OPFRs.