Embryonic atrazine exposure elicits proteomic, behavioral, and brain abnormalities with developmental time specific gene expression signatures

Horzmann, K.A., Reidenbach, L.S., Thanki, D.H., Winchester, A.E., Qualizza, B.A., Ryan, G.A., Egan, K.E., Hedrick, V.E., Sobreira, T.J.P., Peterson, S.M., Weber, G.J., Wirbisky-Hershberger, S.E., Sepúlveda, M.S., Freeman, J.L.
Journal of proteomics   186: 71-82 (Journal)
Registered Authors
Freeman, Jennifer
Atrazine, Behavior, Developmental toxicity, Gene expression, Proteomics, Zebrafish
MeSH Terms
  • Animals
  • Atrazine/pharmacology*
  • Atrazine/toxicity
  • Brain/growth & development
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian/drug effects*
  • Embryonic Development
  • Endocrine Disruptors/pharmacology
  • Endocrine Disruptors/toxicity
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental/drug effects*
  • Herbicides/pharmacology
  • Herbicides/toxicity
  • Larva/drug effects
  • Proteins/drug effects
  • Proteomics*
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical/pharmacology
  • Zebrafish/embryology
30012420 Full text @ J. Proteomics
Atrazine (ATZ), the second most commonly used herbicide in the United States, is an endocrine disrupting chemical linked to cancer and a common drinking water contaminant. This study further investigates ATZ-related developmental toxicity by testing the following hypotheses in zebrafish: the effects of embryonic ATZ exposure are dependent on timing of exposure; embryonic ATZ exposure alters brain development and function; and embryonic ATZ exposure changes protein abundance in carcinogenesis-related pathways. After exposing embryos to 0, 0.3, 3, or 30 parts per billion (ppb) ATZ, we monitored the expression of cytochrome P450 family 17 subfamily A member 1 (cyp17a1), glyoxalase I (glo1), ring finger protein 14 (rnf14), salt inducible kinase 2 (sik2), tetratricopeptide domain 3 (ttc3), and tumor protein D52 like 1 (tpd52l1) at multiple embryonic time points to determine normal expression and if ATZ exposure altered expression. Only cyp17a1 had normal dynamic expression, but ttc3 and tpd52l1 had ATZ-related expression changes before 72 h. Larvae exposed to 0.3 ppb ATZ had increased brain length, while larvae exposed to 30 ppb ATZ were hypoactive. Proteomic analysis identified altered protein abundance in pathways related to cellular function, neurodevelopment, and genital-tract cancer. The results indicate embryonic ATZ toxicity involves interactions of multiple pathways.
This is the first report of proteomic alterations following embryonic exposure to atrazine, an environmentally persistent pesticide and common water contaminant. Although the transcriptomic alterations in larval zebrafish with embryonic atrazine exposure have been reported, neither the time at which gene expression changes occur nor the resulting proteomic changes have been investigated. This study seeks to address these knowledge gaps by evaluating atrazine's effect on gene expression through multiple time points during embryogenesis, and correlating changes in gene expression to pathological alterations in brain length and functional changes in behavior. Finally, pathway analysis of the proteomic alterations identifies connections between the molecular changes and functional outcomes associated with embryonic atrazine exposure.
Genes / Markers
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Mutation and Transgenics
Human Disease / Model Data
Sequence Targeting Reagents
Engineered Foreign Genes
Errata and Notes