Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCPP) is an additive flame retardant of high production volume, and frequently detected in biota and environment. However, knowledge on its potential risk and toxicological mechanism still remains limited. In this study, DNA damage, transcriptomic responses and biochemical changes in the liver of zebrafish (Danio rerio) induced by TDCPP were investigated. Zebrafish was exposed to 45.81μg/L (1/100 (96h-LC50)) and 229.05μg/L (1/20 (96h-LC50)) TDCPP for 7 d. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) and GSH contents, in addition to antioxidant enzyme activities in the liver changed significantly, and the mRNA levels of genes related to oxidative stress were alerted in a dose-dependent and/or sex-dependent manner after exposure to TDCPP. Significant DNA damage in zebrafish liver was found, and olive tail moment increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, exposure of TDCPP at 45.81μg/L level activated the cell cycle arrest, DNA repair system and apoptosis pathway in male zebrafish, and 229.05μg/L TDCPP exposure inhibited those pathways in both male and female zebrafish. The cell apoptosis was confirmed in TUNEL assay as higher incidence of TUNEL-positive cells were observed in zebrafish exposed to 229.05μg/L TDCPP. Our results also indicated that males were more sensitive to TDCPP exposure compared with females. Taken together, our results showed that TDCPP could induce oxidative stress, cell cycle arrest, DNA damage and apoptosis in adult zebrafish liver in sex- and concentration-dependent manners.