Shim, J., Choi, J.H., Park, M.H., Kim, H., Kim, J.H., Kim, S.Y., Hong, D., Kim, S., Lee, J.E., Kim, C.H., Lee, J.S., Bae, Y.K. (2017) Development of zebrafish medulloblastoma-like PNET model by TALEN-mediated somatic gene inactivation. Oncotarget. 8:55280-55297.
Genetically engineered animal tumor models have traditionally been generated by the gain of single or multiple oncogenes or the loss of tumor suppressor genes; however, the development of live animal models has been difficult given that cancer phenotypes are generally induced by somatic mutation rather than by germline genetic inactivation. In this study, we developed somatically mutated tumor models using TALEN-mediated somatic gene inactivation of cdkn2a/b or rb1 tumor suppressor genes in zebrafish. One-cell stage injection of cdkn2a/b-TALEN mRNA resulted in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors with high frequency (about 39%) and early onset (about 35 weeks of age) in F0 tp53e7/e7 mutant zebrafish. Injection of rb1-TALEN mRNA also led to the formation of brain tumors at high frequency (58%, 31 weeks of age) in F0 tp53e7/e7 mutant zebrafish. Analysis of each tumor induced by somatic inactivation showed that the targeted genes had bi-allelic mutations. Tumors induced by rb1 somatic inactivation were characterized as medulloblastoma-like primitive neuroectodermal tumors based on incidence location, histopathological features, and immunohistochemical tests. In addition, 3' mRNA Quanti-Seq analysis showed differential activation of genes involved in cell cycle, DNA replication, and protein synthesis; especially, genes involved in neuronal development were up-regulated.