Torres-Paz, J., Whitlock, K.E. (2014) Olfactory sensory system develops from coordinated movements within the neural plate. Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists. 243:1619-31.
Background The peripheral olfactory sensory system arises from morphologically identifiable structures called placodes. Placodes are relatively late developing structures, evident only well after the initiation of somitogenesis. Placodes are generally described as being induced from the ectoderm suggesting that their development is separate from the coordinated cell movements generating the central nervous system.
Results With the advent of modern techniques it is possible to follow the development of the neurectoderm giving rise to the anterior neural tube, including the olfactory placodes. The cell movements giving rise to the optic cup are coordinated with those generating the olfactory placodes and adjacent telencephalon. The formation of the basal lamina separating the placode from the neural tube is coincident with the anterior migration of cranial neural crest.
Conclusions Olfactory placodes are transient morphological structures arising from a continuous sheet of neurectoderm that gives rise to the peripheral and central nervous system. This field of cells is specified at the end of gastrulation and not secondarily induced from ectoderm. The separation of olfactory placodes and telencephalon occurs through complex cell movements within the developing neural plate similar to that observed for the developing optic cup.