Chen, Y., Ma, J., Lu, W., Tian, M., Thauvin, M., Yuan, C., Volovitch, M., Wang, Q., Holst, J., Liu, M., Vriz, S., Ye, S., Wang, L., Li, D. (2017) Heritable expansion of the genetic code in mouse and zebrafish. Cell Research. 27(2):294-297.
The genetic code can be expanded to encode unnatural amino acids (Uaas) by introducing an orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) pair to decode a stop codon. Initially developed in Escherichia coli1, this strategy has been proven generally applicable in eukaryotic cells2 and in generating transgenic invertebrates capable of Uaa incorporation, including Caenorhabditis elegans3 and Drosophila melanogaster4.