cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is frequently overexpressed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acts as a proto-oncogene; however, it is still debated if such overactivation alone is able to induce leukemia since its pathogenetic downstream signaling is still unclear. Hence, we generated a zebrafish model overexpressing CREB in the myeloid lineage, which showed an aberrant regulation of primitive hematopoiesis, and in 79% of adult CREB-zebrafish a block of myeloid differentiation, triggering to a monocytic leukemia akin the human counterpart. Gene expression analysis of CREB-zebrafish revealed a signature of 20 differentially expressed human homologous CREB targets in common with pediatric AML. Among them, we demonstrated that CREB overexpression increased C/EBPδ levels to cause the myeloid differentiation arrest, and the silencing of CREB-C/EBPδ axis restored myeloid terminal differentiation. Then, C/EBPδ overexpression was found to identify a subset of pediatric AML affected by a block of myeloid differentiation at monocytic stage who presented a significant higher relapse risk and the enrichment of aggressive signatures. Finally, this study unveil the aberrant activation of CREB-C/EBPδ axis concurring to AML onset by disrupting the myeloid cell differentiation process. We provide a novel in vivo model to perform high-throughput drug screening for AML cure improvement.