Kavaliauskis, A., Arnemo, M., Speth, M.T., Lagos, L., Rishovd, A.L., Estepa, A., Griffiths, G., Gjøen, T. (2016) Protective effect of a recombinant VHSV-G vaccine using poly(I:C) loaded nanoparticles as an adjuvant in zebrafish (Danio rerio) infection model. Developmental and comparative immunology. 61:248-57.
There is a constant need to increase the efficiency of vaccines in the aquaculture industry. Although several nano-based vaccine formulations have been reported, to the best of our knowledge so far only one of them have been implemented in the industry. Here we report on chitosan-poly(I:C) nanoparticles (NPs) that could be used as a non-specific adjuvant in antiviral vaccines in aquaculture. We have characterized the physical parameters of the NPs, studied the in vivo and in vitro bio-distribution of fluorescent NPs and verified NP uptake by zebrafish leucocytes. We used the zebrafish model to test the protective efficiency of the recombinant glycoprotein G (rgpG) of VHSV compared to inactivated whole virus (iV) against VHSV using NPs as an adjuvant in both formulations. In parallel we tested free poly(I:C) and rgpG (pICrgpG), and free chitosan and rgpG (CSrgpG) vaccine formulations. While the iV group (with NP adjuvant) provided the highest overall survival, all vaccine formulations with poly(I:C) provided a significant protection against VHSV; possibly through an early induction of an anti-viral state. Our results suggest that chitosan-poly(I:C) NPs are a promising adjuvant candidate for future vaccine formulations.