Nair, N., Gerger, C., Hatef, A., Weber, L.P., Unniappan, S. (2016) Ultrasonography Reveals In Vivo Dose-Dependent Inhibition of End Systolic and Diastolic Volumes, Heart Rate and Cardiac Output by Nesfatin-1 in Zebrafish. General and comparative endocrinology. 234:142-50.
Nesfatin-1 is an 82 amino acid peptide that inhibits food intake in rodents and fish. While endogenous nesfatin-1, and its role in the regulation of food intake and hormone secretion has been reported in fish, information on cardiovascular functions of nesfatin-1 in fish is in its infancy. We hypothesized that cardiac NUCB2 expression is meal responsive and nesfatin-1 is a cardioregulatory peptide in zebrafish. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 like immunoreactivity was detected in zebrafish cardiomyocytes. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis found that the cardiac expression of NUCB2A mRNA in unfed fish decreased at 1 hour post-regular feeding time. Food deprivation for 7 days did not change NUCB2A mRNA expression. However, NUCB2B mRNA expression was increased in the heart of zebrafish after a 7-day food deprivation. Ultrasonography of zebrafish heart at 15 minutes post-intraperitoneal injection of nesfatin-1 (250 and 500 ng/g body weight) showed a dose-dependent inhibition of end diastolic and end systolic volumes. A dose dependent decrease in heart rate and cardiac output was observed in zebrafish that received nesfatin-1, but no changes in stroke volume were found. Nesfatin-1 treatment caused a significant increase in the expression of Atp2a2a mRNA encoding the calcium-handling pump, SERCA2a, while it had no effects on the expression of calcium handling protein RyR1b encoding mRNA. Our data support cardiosuppressive effects of nesfatin-1 in zebrafish, and reveals energy availability as one determinant of cardiac NUCB2 mRNA expression.