Narasimhan, V., Hjeij, R., Vij, S., Loges, N.T., Wallmeier, J., Koerner-Rettberg, C., Werner, C., Thamilselvam, S.K., Boey, A., Choksi, S., Pennekamp, P., Roy, S., Omran, H. (2015) Mutations in CCDC11, Which Encodes a Coiled-coil Containing Ciliary Protein, Causes situs inversus Due to Dysmotility of Monocilia in the Left-Right Organizer. Human Mutation. 36(3):307-18.
In vertebrates, establishment of left-right (LR) asymmetry is dependent on cilia-driven fluid flow within the LR organizer. Mutations in CCDC11 disrupt LR asymmetry in humans, but how the gene functions in LR patterning is presently unknown. We describe a patient with situs inversus totalis carrying homozygous loss-of-function mutations in CCDC11. We show that CCDC11 is an axonemal protein in respiratory cilia, but is largely dispensable for their structure and motility. To investigate the role of CCDC11 in LR development, we studied the zebrafish homolog of the gene. Like in human respiratory cilia, loss of Ccdc11 causes minor defects in the motility of zebrafish kidney cilia, although the protein localizes to their axonemes and base. By contrast, Ccdc11 localizes exclusively to the basal bodies of cilia within Kupffer's vesicle (KV), the organ of laterality of teleost fishes, and within the spinal canal. Moreover the rotational motion of the cilia in these tissues of ccdc11 deficient embryos was strongly impaired. Our findings demonstrate that CCDC11 has a conserved essential function in cilia of the vertebrate LR organizer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ciliary component which has a differential localization and function in different kinds of motile cilia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.