Motorykin, I., Traber, M.G., Tanguay, R.L., and Maier, C.S. (2014) Proteome-Driven Elucidation of Adaptive Responses to Combined Vitamin E and C Deficiency in Zebrafish. Journal of Proteome Research. 13(3):1647-56.
The purpose of this study was to determine the system-wide consequences of deficiencies in two essential micronutrients, vitamins E and C, on the proteome using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as one of the few vertebrate models that similar to humans cannot synthesize vitamin C. We describe a label-free proteomics workflow to detect changes in protein abundance estimates dependent on vitamin regimes. We used ion-mobility-enhanced data-independent tandem mass spectrometry to determine differential regulation of proteins in response to low dietary levels of vitamin C with or without vitamin E. The detection limit of the method was as low as 20 amol, and the dynamic range was five orders of magnitude for the protein-level estimates. On the basis of the quantitative changes obtained, we built a network of protein interactions that reflect the whole organism’s response to vitamin C deficiency. The proteomics-driven study revealed that in vitamin-E-deficient fish, vitamin C deficiency is associated with induction of stress response, astrogliosis, and a shift from glycolysis to glutaminolysis as an alternative mechanism to satisfy cellular energy requirements.