Senga, Y., Yoshioka, K., Kameshita, I., and Sueyoshi, N. (2013) Expression and gene knockdown of zebrafish Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Idelta-LL. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics. 540(1-2):41-52.
Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Iδ (CaMKIδ) is expressed ubiquitously, but little is known about its physiological functions. Recently, we cloned and characterized two splice variants of zebrafish (Danio rerio) CaMKIδ (CaMKIδ-S/L). In the present study we cloned a new CaMKIδ isoform, CaMKIδ-LL, encoded by a different gene from CaMKIδ-S/L. While the catalytic domain of CaMKIδ-LL showed 86% identity that of CaMKIδ-S/L, it had a unique C-terminal sequence. To clarify the functional role of CaMKIδ-LL, we investigated the biological significance of this new isoform during zebrafish embryogenesis. Although CaMKIδ-LL exhibited essentially the same catalytic properties and substrate specificities as the other CaMKIδ isoforms, it showed different temporal and spatial expression. During zebrafish embryogenesis, RT-PCR analysis detected CaMKIδ-LL expression after 48 h post-fertilization. Western blotting in adult zebrafish demonstrated that CaMKIδ-LL is expressed in the brain, the eye, and, abundantly, in fins. Knockdown of CaMKIδ-LL expression using morpholino-based antisense oligonucleotides resulted in an increase in abnormal embryos with small fins and underdeveloped cartilage. These phenotypes were rescued by co-injection with recombinant CaMKIδ-LL. These results clearly indicated that CaMKIδ-LL plays an important role in the generation of cartilage and fins during zebrafish embryogenesis.