ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-120409-5
Deep intron elements mediate nested splicing events at consecutive AG-dinucleotides to regulate alternative 3' splice site choice in vertebrate 4.1 genes
Parra, M.K., Gallagher, T.L., Amacher, S.L., Mohandas, N., and Conboy, J.G.
Date: 2012
Source: Molecular and cellular biology   32(11): 2044-2053 (Journal)
Registered Authors: Amacher, Sharon
Keywords: none
MeSH Terms:
  • Alternative Splicing*
  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Introns*
  • Mice
  • Microfilament Proteins/genetics*
  • Microfilament Proteins/metabolism
  • RNA Precursors/genetics
  • RNA Precursors/metabolism
  • RNA Splice Sites*
  • Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid*
PubMed: 22473990 Full text @ Mol. Cell. Biol.

Distal intraexon (iE) regulatory elements in 4.1R pre-mRNA govern 32 splice site choice at exon 2 (E2) via nested splicing events, ultimately modulating expression of N-terminal isoforms of cytoskeletal 4.1R protein. Here we explore intrasplicing in other normal and disease gene context(s) and demonstrate conservation of intrasplicing through vertebrate evolution. In the paralogous 4.1B gene, we identified <120kb upstream of E2 an ultra-distal intraexon, iEB, that mediates intrasplicing by promoting two intricately-coupled splicing events that ensure selection of a weak distal acceptor at E2 (E2dis) by prior excision of the competing proximal acceptor (E2prox). Mutating iEB in minigene splicing reporters abrogated intrasplicing, as did blocking endogenous iEB function with antisense morpholinos in live mouse and zebrafish animal models. In a human elliptocytosis patient with a mutant 4.1R gene lacking E2-E4, we showed that aberrant splicing is consistent with iER-mediated intrasplicing at the first available exons downstream of iER, namely alternative E5 and constitutive E6. Finally, analysis of heterologous acceptor contexts revealed a strong preference for nested 32 splice events at consecutive pairs of AG dinucleotides. Distal regulatory elements may control intrasplicing at a subset of alternative 32 splice sites in vertebrate pre-mRNAs to generate proteins with functional diversity.