Lebold, K.M., Jump, D.B., Miller, G.W., Wright, C.L., Labut, E.M., Barton, C.L., Tanguay, R.L., and Traber, M.G. (2011) Vitamin E Deficiency Decreases Long-Chain PUFA in Zebrafish (Danio rerio). The Journal of nutrition. 141(12):2113-8.
α-Tocopherol is a required, lipid-soluble antioxidant that protects PUFA. We hypothesized that α-tocopherol deficiency in
zebrafish compromises PUFA status. Zebrafish were fed for 1 y either an α-tocopherol-sufficient (E+; 500 mg α-tocopherol/kg) or -deficient (E-; 1.1 mg α-tocopherol/kg) diet containing α-linolenic (ALA) and linoleic (LA) acids but without arachidonic acid (ARA), EPA,
or DHA. Vitamin E deficiency in zebrafish decreased by ~20% (n-6) (P < 0.05) and (n-3) (P < 0.05) PUFA and increased the (n-6):(n-3) PUFA ratio (P < 0.05). In E- compared to E+ females, long chain-PUFA status was impaired, as assessed by a ~60% lower DHA:ALA ratio (P < 0.05) and a ~50% lower ARA:LA ratio (P < 0.05). fads2 (P < 0.05) and elovl2 (P < 0.05) mRNA expression was doubled in E- compared to E+ fish. Thus, inadequate vitamin E status led to a depletion of PUFA that may be a result of either or both increased lipid
peroxidation and an impaired ability to synthesize sufficient PUFA, especially (n-3) PUFA.