Sundvik, M., Kudo, H., Toivonen, P., Rozov, S., Chen, Y.C., and Panula, P. (2011) The histaminergic system regulates wakefulness and orexin/hypocretin neuron development via histamine receptor H1 in zebrafish. FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 25(12):4338-47.
The histaminergic and hypocretin/orexin (hcrt) neurotransmitter systems play crucial roles in alertness/wakefulness in rodents.
We elucidated the role of histamine in wakefulness and the interaction of the histamine and hcrt systems in larval zebrafish.
Translation inhibition of histidine decarboxylase (hdc) with morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) led to a behaviorally measurable decline in light-associated activity, which was
partially rescued by hdc mRNA injections and mimicked by histamine receptor H1 (Hrh1) antagonist pyrilamine treatment. Histamine-immunoreactive fibers
targeted the dorsal telencephalon, an area that expresses histamine receptors hrh1 and hrh3 and contains predominantly glutamatergic neurons. Tract tracing with DiI revealed that projections from dorsal telencephalon
innervate the hcrt and histaminergic neurons. Translation inhibition of hdc decreased the number of hcrt neurons in a Hrh1-dependent manner. The reduction was rescued by overexpression of hdc mRNA. hdc mRNA injection alone led to an up-regulation of hcrt neuron numbers. These results suggest that histamine is essential for the development of a functional and intact hcrt system
and that histamine has a bidirectional effect on the development of the hcrt neurons. In summary, our findings provide evidence that these two systems are linked both functionally and developmentally,
which may have important implications in sleep disorders and narcolepsy.—Sundvik, M., Kudo, H., Toivonen, P., Rozov, S., Chen,
Y.-C., Panula, P. The histaminergic system regulates wakefulness and orexin/hypocretin neuron development via histamine receptor H1 in zebrafish.