|ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-110131-16|
Tubulin tyrosine ligase like genes TTLL3 and TTLL6 maintain zebrafish cilia structure and motility
Pathak, N., Austin, C.A., and Drummond, I.A.
|Source:||The Journal of biological chemistry 286(13): 11685-11695 (Journal)|
|Registered Authors:||Drummond, Iain, Pathak, Naremdra|
|Keywords:||Development, Microtubules, Post translational modification, Tubulin, Zebra fish, cilia, tubulin tyrosine ligase like|
|PubMed:||21262966 Full text @ J. Biol. Chem.|
Pathak, N., Austin, C.A., and Drummond, I.A. (2011) Tubulin tyrosine ligase like genes TTLL3 and TTLL6 maintain zebrafish cilia structure and motility. The Journal of biological chemistry. 286(13):11685-11695.
ABSTRACTTubulin posttranslational modifications generate microtubule heterogeneity and modulate microtubule function, and are catalyzed by tubulin tyrosine ligase like (TTLL) proteins. Using antibodies specific to monoglycylated, polyglycylated, and glutamylated tubulin in wholemount immunostaining of zebrafish embryos, we observed distinct, tissue-specific patterns of tubulin modifications. Tubulin modification patterns in cilia correlated with the expression of ttll3 and ttll6 in ciliated cells. Expression screening of all zebrafish tubulin tyrosine ligase like genes revealed additional tissue-specific expression of ttll1 in brain neurons, ttll4 in muscle, and ttll7 in otic placodes. Knockdown of ttll3 eliminated cilia tubulin glycylation but had surprisingly mild effects on cilia structure and motility. Similarly, knockdown of ttll6 strongly reduced cilia tubulin glutamylation but only partially affected cilia structure and motility. Combined loss of function of ttll3 and ttll6 caused near complete loss of cilia motility and induced a variety of axonemal ultrastructural defects similar to defects previously observed in zebrafish fleer mutants which were shown to lack tubulin glutamylation. Consistently, we find that fleer mutants also lack tubulin glycylation. These results indicate that tubulin glycylation and glutamylation have overlapping functions in maintaining cilia structure and motility and that the fleer/dyf-1 TPR protein is required for both types of tubulin postranslational modification.