ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-101108-13
Phylogeny informs ontogeny: a proposed common theme in the arterial pole of the vertebrate heart
Grimes, A.C., Durán, A.C., Sans-Coma, V., Hami, D., Santoro, M.M., and Torres, M.
Date: 2010
Source: Evolution & development   12(6): 552-567 (Journal)
Registered Authors: Grimes, Adrian, Santoro, Massimo
Keywords: none
MeSH Terms:
  • Animals
  • Chick Embryo
  • Fishes
  • Heart/anatomy & histology*
  • Heart/embryology*
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • Mice
  • Morphogenesis/physiology*
  • Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology*
  • Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/metabolism
  • Myocardium/cytology*
  • Phylogeny
  • Vertebrates/embryology*
  • Vertebrates/physiology
  • Zebrafish
PubMed: 21040422 Full text @ Evol. Dev.
In chick and mouse embryogenesis, a population of cells described as the secondary heart field (SHF) adds both myocardium and smooth muscle to the developing cardiac outflow tract (OFT). Following this addition, at approximately HH stage 22 in chick embryos, for example, the SHF can be identified architecturally by an overlapping seam at the arterial pole, where beating myocardium forms a junction with the smooth muscle of the arterial system. Previously, using either immunohistochemistry or nitric oxide indicators such as diaminofluorescein 2-diacetate, we have shown that a similar overlapping architecture also exists in the arterial pole of zebrafish and some shark species. However, although recent work suggests that development of the zebrafish OFT may also proceed by addition of a SHF-like population of cells, the presence of a true SHF in zebrafish and in many other developmental biological models remains an open question. We performed a comprehensive morphological study of the OFT of a wide range of vertebrates. Our data suggest that all vertebrates possess three fundamental OFT components: a proximal myocardial component, a distal smooth muscle component, and a middle component that contains overlapping myocardium and smooth muscle surrounding and supporting the outflow valves. Because the middle OFT component of avians and mammals is derived from the SHF, our observations suggest that a SHF may be an evolutionarily conserved theme in vertebrate embryogenesis.