Sanek, N.A., Taylor, A.A., Nyholm, M.K., and Grinblat, Y. (2009) Zebrafish zic2a patterns the forebrain through modulation of Hedgehog-activated gene expression. Development (Cambridge, England). 136(22):3791-3800.
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common congenital malformation of the forebrain in human. Several genes with essential roles during forebrain development have been identified because they cause HPE when mutated. Among these are genes that encode the secreted growth factor Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and the transcription factors Six3 and Zic2. In the mouse, Six3 and Shh activate each other's transcription, but a role for Zic2 in this interaction has not been tested. We demonstrate that in zebrafish, as in mouse, Hh signaling activates transcription of six3b in the developing forebrain. zic2a is also activated by Hh signaling, and represses six3b non-cell-autonomously, i.e. outside of its own expression domain, probably through limiting Hh signaling. Zic2a repression of six3b is essential for the correct formation of the prethalamus. The diencephalon-derived optic stalk (OS) and neural retina are also patterned in response to Hh signaling. We show that zebrafish Zic2a limits transcription of the Hh targets pax2a and fgf8a in the OS and retina. The effects of Zic2a depletion in the forebrain and in the OS and retina are rescued by blocking Hh signaling or by increasing levels of the Hh antagonist Hhip, suggesting that in both tissues Zic2a acts to attenuate the effects of Hh signaling. These data uncover a novel, essential role for Zic2a as a modulator of Hh-activated gene expression in the developing forebrain and advance our understanding of a key gene regulatory network that, when disrupted, causes HPE.