Wang, Y., Chen, K., Yao, Q., Zheng, X., and Yang, Z. (2009) Phylogenetic Analysis of Zebrafish Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors. Journal of molecular evolution. 68(6):629-640.
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins play important regulatory roles in eukaryotic developmental processes including neurogenesis, myogenesis, hematopoiesis, sex determination, and gut development. Zebrafish is a good model organism for developmental biology. In this study, we identified 139 bHLH genes encoded in the zebrafish genome. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that zebrafish has 58, 29, 21, 5, 19, and 5 bHLH members in groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively, while 2 members were classified as "orphan." A comparison between zebrafish and human bHLH repertoires suggested that both organisms have a certain number of specific bHLH members. Eight zebrafish bHLH genes were found to have multiple coding regions in the genome. Two of these, Bmal1 and MITF, are good anchor genes for identification of fish-specific whole-genome duplication events in comparison with mouse and chicken genomes. The present study provides useful information for future studies on gene family evolution and vertebrate development.