Cui, Z., Yang, Y., Kaufman, C.D., Agalliu, D., and Hackett, P.B. (2003) RecA-mediated, targeted mutagenesis in zebrafish. Mar. Biotechnol.. 5(2):174-184.
We have evaluated the efficacy of RecA, a prokaryotic protein involved with homologous recombination, to direct site-specific mutagenesis in zebrafish embryos. For this we coinjected a vector containing a mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene plus 236-nucleotide corrective single-stranded DNAs coated with RecA into 1-cell zebrafish embryos. Twenty-hours after fertilization, about 5% to 20% of injected embryos showed EGFP expression in 1 or more cells when RecA-coated corrective DNAs were used, but not when RecA was omitted. Mutated EGFP genes with 1-bp insertions or deletions were inefficiently activated, whereas those with 7-bp insertions were activated about 4-fold more efficiently. RecA-coated template strand had a higher efficiency than its complementary strand in activation of EGFP expression. Prior irradiation of the embryos with UV light enhanced RecA-mediated restoration of gene activity, suggesting that the effects we observed were augmented by one or more factors of zebrafish DNA repair systems.