ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-020513-8
Molecular evolution of the HoxA cluster in the three major gnathostome lineages
Chiu, C.-H., Amemiya, C., Dewar, K., Kim, C.-B., Ruddle, F.H., and Wagner, G.P.
The duplication of Hox clusters and their maintenance in a lineage has a prominent but little understood role in chordate evolution. Here we examined how Hox cluster duplication may influence changes in cluster architecture and patterns of noncoding sequence evolution. We sequenced the entire duplicated HoxAa and HoxAb clusters of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and extended the 5' (posterior) part of the HoxM (HoxA-like) cluster of horn shark (Heterodontus francisci) containing the hoxa11 and hoxa13 orthologs as well as intergenic and flanking noncoding sequences. The duplicated HoxA clusters in zebrafish each house considerably fewer genes and are dramatically shorter than the single HoxA clusters of human and horn shark. We compared the intergenic sequences of the HoxA clusters of human, horn shark, zebrafish (Aa, Ab), and striped bass and found extensive conservation of noncoding sequence motifs, i.e., phylogenetic footprints, between the human and horn shark, representing two of the three gnathostome lineages. These are putative cis-regulatory elements that may play a role in the regulation of the ancestral HoxA cluster. In contrast, homologous regions of the duplicated HoxAa and HoxAb clusters of zebrafish and the HoxA cluster of striped bass revealed a striking loss of conservation of these putative cis-regulatory sequences in the 3' (anterior) segment of the cluster, where zebrafish only retains single representatives of group 1, 3, 4, and 5 (HoxAa) and group 2 (HoxAb) genes and in the 5' part of the clusters, where zebrafish retains two copies of the group 13, 11, and 9 genes, i.e., AbdB-like genes. In analyzing patterns of cis-sequence evolution in the 5' part of the clusters, we explicitly looked for evidence of complementary loss of conserved noncoding sequences, as predicted by the duplication-degeneration-complementation model in which genetic redundancy after gene duplication is resolved because of the fixation of complementary degenerative mutations. Our data did not yield evidence supporting this prediction. We conclude that changes in the pattern of cis-sequence conservation after Hox cluster duplication are more consistent with being the outcome of adaptive modification rather than passive mechanisms that erode redundancy created by the duplication event. These results support the view that genome duplications may provide a mechanism whereby master control genes undergo radical modifications conducive to major alterations in body plan. Such genomic revolutions may contribute significantly to the evolutionary process.
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