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Research
General Information
ZIRC
ZFIN ID: ZDB-PERS-960805-285
Kanki, John
Email: jpkanki@gmail.com
URL:
Affiliation:
Address: Department of Pediatric Oncology Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Harvard Medical School Mayer Building 630 44 Binney Street Boston, MA 02115 USA
Country:
Phone: (617) 632-4476
Fax: (617) 632-3546
Orcid ID:


BIOGRAPHY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS
We are studying cancer genetics using the zebrafish animal model, in combination with murine and cell culture systems, to dissect developmental pathways subverted in human leukemias and solid tumors. The zebrafish model is an established system for studying vertebrate embryogenesis, organogenesis and disease. A powerful attribute of the zebrafish is its capacity for performing large-scale forward genetic screens on transparent, readily accessible embryos. Thus, the zebrafish is an ideal system for identifying novel genes involved in cancer, as their discovery is based on unbiased phenotypic assays and can uncover genes that are either activated (oncogenes) or inactivated (tumor suppressors) during malignant transformation. Using genome-wide mutagenesis screening strategies and TILLING in conjunction with transgenic approaches we are generating zebrafish models of several different cancers.

Zebrafish myelopoiesis is very similar to that in humans and we postulate that through our mutagenesis screens we will identify a subset of genes that both regulates normal myelopoiesis and contributes to the pathogenesis of two important human diseases - myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia. A second screen is underway to uncover genes disrupted in neuroblastoma, the most common extra-cranial solid tumor of children. These embryonic tumors arise in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system (PSNS) and most of the genes regulating both PSNS development and neuroblastoma formation have yet to be identified. Through these screens we have identified new genes required for normal myelopoiesis and PSNS development and are currently studying their respective contributions to neoplastic pathogenesis. Cell death mechanisms also contribute to malignant transformation and p53, a critical regulator of DNA repair and apoptosis, is the most commonly mutated gene among all cancers. We have recently isolated a mutant p53 zebrafish line that is tumor-prone and is currently being used in conjunction with our zebrafish cancer models to determine how p53 contributes to tissue-specific tumors.

We have shown that human T-cell leukemias can be divided into five major subtypes based on the expression of oncogenes that initiate malignant transformation, and in addition, have generated transgenic zebrafish lines overexpressing Myc that develop leukemia, recapitulating one of these human T-ALL subtypes. We are now conducting one of the first “cancer-related” modifier screens in a vertebrate system to identify both enhancers and suppressors of T-cell leukemia. Chemical and genetic modifier screens using tumor-prone zebrafish lines may ultimately reveal mutant genes or drugs that can suppress or modify disease progression. We hope to identify such modifiers that can either promote specific aspects of the malignancy, such as genomic instability or metastasis, or that delays/suppresses tumor onset. We are also utilizing innovative in vitro genome-scale location analysis (GSLA), combining chromatin immunoprecipitation with hybridization to human promoter microarrays to identify the direct targets of prevalent oncogenic transcription factors. We are validating the significance of key subsets of candidate targets through siRNA strategies and assessing whether their functional inhibition retards aberrant cell growth and survival in panels of cell lines derived from human cancers. Through the combination of these approaches we hope to uncover novel genes and targets for the development of small molecule inhibitors and new cancer therapies.


PUBLICATIONS
Harrold, I., Carbonneau, S., Moore, B.M., Nguyen, G., Anderson, N.M., Saini, A.S., Kanki, J.P., Jette, C.A., Feng, H. (2016) Efficient transgenesis mediated by pigmentation rescue in zebrafish. Biotechniques. 60:13-20
Anderson, H., Patch, T.C., Reddy, P.N., Hagedorn, E.J., Kim, P.G., Soltis, K.A., Chen, M.J., Tamplin, O.J., Frye, M., MacLean, G.A., Hübner, K., Bauer, D.E., Kanki, J.P., Vogin, G., Huston, N.C., Nguyen, M., Fujiwara, Y., Paw, B.H., Vestweber, D., Zon, L.I., Orkin, S.H., Daley, G.Q., Shah, D.I. (2015) Hematopoietic stem cells develop in the absence of endothelial cadherin 5 expression. Blood. 126(26):2811-20
Shin, J., Padmanabhan, A., de Groh, E.D., Lee, J.S., Haidar, S., Dahlberg, S., Guo, F., He, S., Wolman, M.A., Granato, M., Lawson, N.D., Wolfe, S.A., Kim, S.H., Solnica-Krezel, L., Kanki, J.P., Ligon, K.L., Epstein, J.A., and Look, A.T. (2012) Zebrafish neurofibromatosis type 1 genes have redundant functions in tumorigenesis and embryonic development. Disease models & mechanisms. 5(6):881-894
Zhu, S., Lee, J.S., Guo, F., Shin, J., Perez-Atayde, A.R., Kutok, J.L., Rodig, S.J., Neuberg, D.S., Helman, D., Feng, H., Stewart, R.A., Wang, W., George, R.E., Kanki, J.P., and Look, A.T. (2012) Activated ALK Collaborates with MYCN in Neuroblastoma Pathogenesis. Cancer Cell. 21(3):362-373
Gutierrez, A., Grebliunaite, R., Feng, H., Kozakewich, E., Zhu, S., Guo, F., Payne, E., Mansour, M., Dahlberg, S.E., Neuberg, D.S., Hertog, J.D., Prochownik, E.V., Testa, J.R., Harris, M., Kanki, J.P., and Look, A.T. (2011) Pten mediates Myc oncogene dependence in a conditional zebrafish model of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The Journal of experimental medicine. 208(8):1595-603
Payne, E.M., Bolli, N., Rhodes, J., Abdel-Wahab, O.I., Levine, R., Hedvat, C.V., Stone, R., Khanna-Gupta, A., Sun, H., Kanki, J.P., Gazda, H.T., Beggs, A.H., Cotter, F.E., and Look, A.T. (2011) Ddx18 is essential for cell cycle progression in zebrafish hematopoietic cells and is mutated in human acute myeloid leukemia. Blood. 118(4):903-15
Bolli, N., Payne, E.M., Rhodes, J., Gjini, E., Johnston, A.B., Guo, F., Lee, J.S., Stewart, R.A., Kanki, J.P., Chen, A.T., Zhou, Y., Zon, L.I., and Look, A.T. (2011) cpsf1 is required for definitive HSC survival in zebrafish. Blood. 117(15):3996-4007
Grabher, C., Payne, E.M., Johnston, A.B., Bolli, N., Lechman, E., Dick, J.E., Kanki, J.P., and Look, A.T. (2011) Zebrafish microRNA-126 determines hematopoietic cell fate through c-Myb. Leukemia. 25(3):506-514
Rodriguez-Mari, A., Wilson, C., Titus, T.A., Cañestro, C., Bremiller, R.A., Yan, Y.L., Nanda, I., Johnston, A., Kanki, J.P., Gray, E.M., He, X., Spitsbergen, J., Schindler, D., and Postlethwait, J.H. (2011) Roles of brca2 (fancd1) in Oocyte Nuclear Architecture, Gametogenesis, Gonad Tumors, and Genome Stability in Zebrafish. PLoS Genetics. 7(3):e1001357
Robinson, B.W., Germano, G., Song, Y., Abrams, J., Scott, M., Guariento, I., Tiso, N., Argenton, F., Basso, G., Rhodes, J., Kanki, J.P., Look, A.T., Balice-Gordon, R.J., and Felix, C.A. (2011) mll ortholog containing functional domains of human MLL is expressed throughout the zebrafish lifespan and in haematopoietic tissues. British journal of haematology. 152(3):307-321
Etchin, J., Kanki, J.P., and Look, A.T. (2011) Zebrafish as a model for the study of human cancer. Methods in cell biology. 105:309-337
Lee, J.S., Padmanabhan, A., Shin, J., Zhu, S., Guo, F., Kanki, J.P., Epstein, J.A., and Look, A.T. (2010) Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell numbers and migration are regulated by the zebrafish orthologs of the NF1 tumor suppressor gene. Human molecular genetics. 19(23):4643-4653
Feng, H., Stachura, D.L., White, R.M., Gutierrez, A., Zhang, L., Sanda, T., Jette, C.A., Testa, J.R., Neuberg, D.S., Langenau, D.M., Kutok, J.L., Zon, L.I., Traver, D., Fleming, M.D., Kanki, J.P., and Look, A.T. (2010) T-lymphoblastic lymphoma cells express high levels of BCL2, S1P1, and ICAM1, leading to a blockade of tumor cell intravasation. Cancer Cell. 18(4):353-366
Bolli, N., Payne, E.M., Grabher, C., Lee, J.S., Johnston, A.B., Falini, B., Kanki, J.P., and Look, A.T. (2010) Expression of the cytoplasmic NPM1 mutant (NPMc+) causes the expansion of hematopoietic cells in zebrafish. Blood. 115(16):3329-3340
Stewart, R.A., Lee, J.S., Lachnit, M., Look, A.T., Kanki, J.P., and Henion, P.D. (2010) Chapter 5 - Studying peripheral sympathetic nervous system development and neuroblastoma in zebrafish. Methods in cell biology. 100:127-152
Padmanabhan, A., Lee, J.S., Ismat, F.A., Lu, M.M., Lawson, N.D., Kanki, J.P., Look, A.T., and Epstein, J.A. (2009) Cardiac and vascular functions of the zebrafish orthologues of the type I neurofibromatosis gene NFI. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106(52):22305-22310
Amigo, J.D., Ackermann, G.E., Cope, J.J., Yu, M., Cooney, J.D., Ma, D., Langer, N.B., Shafizadeh, E., Shaw, G.C., Horsley, W., Trede, N.S., Davidson, A.J., Barut, B.A., Zhou, Y., Wojiski, S.A., Traver, D., Moran, T.B., Kourkoulis, G., Hsu, K., Kanki, J.P., Shah, D.I., Lin, H.F., Handin, R.I., Cantor, A.B., and Paw, B.H. (2009) The role and regulation of friend of GATA-1 (FOG-1) during blood development in the zebrafish. Blood. 114(21):4654-4663
Rhodes, J., Amsterdam, A., Sanda, T., Moreau, L.A., McKenna, K., Heinrichs, S., Ganem, N.J., Ho, K.W., Neuberg, D.S., Johnston, A., Ahn, Y., Kutok, J.L., Hromas, R., Wray, J., Lee, C., Murphy, C., Radke, I., Downing, J.R., Fleming, M.D., Macconaill, L.E., Amatruda, J.F., Gutierrez, A., Galinsky, I., Stone, R.M., Ross, E.A., Pellman, D.S., Kanki, J.P., and Look, A.T. (2009) Emi1 Maintains Genomic Integrity during Zebrafish Embryogenesis and Cooperates with p53 in Tumor Suppression. Molecular and cellular biology. 29(21):5911-5922
Dodd, M.E., Hatzold, J., Mathias, J.R., Walters, K.B., Bennin, D.A., Rhodes, J., Kanki, J.P., Look, A.T., Hammerschmidt, M., and Huttenlocher, A. (2009) The ENTH domain protein Clint1 is required for epidermal homeostasis in zebrafish. Development (Cambridge, England). 136(15):2591-2600
Walters, K.B., Dodd, M.E., Mathias, J.R., Gallagher, A.J., Bennin, D.A., Rhodes, J., Kanki, J.P., Look, A.T., Grinblat, Y., and Huttenlocher, A. (2009) Muscle degeneration and leukocyte infiltration caused by mutation of zebrafish fad24. Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists. 238(1):86-99
Zhang, Y., Bai, X.T., Zhu, K.Y., Jin, Y., Deng, M., Le, H.Y., Fu, Y.F., Chen, Y., Zhu, J., Look, A.T., Kanki, J., Chen, Z., Chen, S.J., and Liu, T.X. (2008) In Vivo Interstitial Migration of Primitive Macrophages Mediated by JNK-Matrix Metalloproteinase 13 Signaling in Response to Acute Injury. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 181(3):2155-2164
Sidi, S., Sanda, T., Kennedy, R.D., Hagen, A.T., Jette, C.A., Hoffmans, R., Pascual, J., Imamura, S., Kishi, S., Amatruda, J.F., Kanki, J.P., Green, D.R., D'Andrea, A.A., and Look, A.T. (2008) Chk1 Suppresses a Caspase-2 Apoptotic Response to DNA Damage that Bypasses p53, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3. Cell. 133(5):864-877
Kwan, K.M., Fujimoto, E., Grabher, C., Mangum, B.D., Hardy, M.E., Campbell, D.S., Parant, J.M., Yost, H.J., Kanki, J.P., and Chien, C.B. (2007) The Tol2kit: A multisite gateway-based construction kit for Tol2 transposon transgenesis constructs. Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists. 236(11):3088-3099
Mathias, J.R., Dodd, M.E., Walters, K.B., Rhodes, J., Kanki, J.P., Look, A.T., and Huttenlocher, A. (2007) Live imaging of chronic inflammation caused by mutation of zebrafish Hai1. Journal of Cell Science. 120(19):3372-3383
Feng, H., Langenau, D.M., Madge, J.A., Quinkertz, A., Gutierrez, A., Neuberg, D.S., Kanki, J.P., and Look, A.T. (2007) Heat-shock induction of T-cell lymphoma/leukaemia in conditional Cre/lox-regulated transgenic zebrafish. British journal of haematology. 138(2):169-175
Chen, J., Jette, C., Kanki, J.P., Aster, J.C., Look, A.T., and Griffin, J.D. (2007) NOTCH1-induced T-cell leukemia in transgenic zebrafish. Leukemia. 21(3):462-471
Liu, T.X., Rhodes, J., Deng, M., Hsu, K., Radomska, H.S., Kanki, J.P., Tenen, D.G., and Look, A.T. (2007) Dominant-interfering C/EBPalpha stimulates primitive erythropoiesis in zebrafish. Experimental hematology. 35(2):230-239
Mathias, J.R., Perrin, B.J., Liu, T.X., Kanki, J., Look, A.T., and Huttenlocher, A. (2006) Resolution of inflammation by retrograde chemotaxis of neutrophils in transgenic zebrafish. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 80(6):1281-1288
Stewart, R.A., Arduini, B.L., Berghmans, S., George, R.E., Kanki, J.P., Henion, P.D., and Look, A.T. (2006) Zebrafish foxd3 is selectively required for neural crest specification, migration and survival. Developmental Biology. 292(1):174-188
Berman, J.N., Kanki, J.P., and Look, A.T. (2005) Zebrafish as a model for myelopoiesis during embryogenesis. Experimental hematology. 33(9):997-1006
Berghmans, S., Jette, C., Langenau, D., Hsu, K., Stewart, R., Look, T., and Kanki, J.P. (2005) Making waves in cancer research: new models in the zebrafish. Biotechniques. 39(2):227-237
Langenau, D.M., Feng, H., Berghmans, S., Kanki, J.P., Kutok, J.L., and Look, A.T. (2005) Cre/lox-regulated transgenic zebrafish model with conditional myc-induced T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 102(17):6068-6073
Langenau, D.M., Jette, C., Berghmans, S., Palomero, T., Kanki, J.P., Kutok, J.L., and Look, A.T. (2005) Suppression of apoptosis by bcl-2-overexpression in lymphoid cells of transgenic zebrafish. Blood. 105(8):3278-3285
Berghmans,, S., Murphey, R.D., Wienholds, E., Neuberg, D., Kutok, J.L., Fletcher, C.D., Morris, J.P., Liu, T.X., Schulte-Merker, S., Kanki, J.P., Plasterk, R., Zon, L.I., and Look, A.T. (2005) tp53 mutant zebrafish develop malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 102(2):407-412
Rhodes, J., Hagen, A., Hsu, K., Deng, M., Liu, T.X., Look, A.T., and Kanki, J.P. (2005) Interplay of pu.1 and gata1 determines myelo-erythroid progenitor cell fate in zebrafish. Developmental Cell. 8(1):97-108
Song, H.D., Sun, X.J., Deng, M., Zhang, G.W., Zhou, Y., Wu, X.Y., Sheng, Y., Chen, Y., Ruan, Z., Jiang, C.L., Fan, H.Y., Zon, L.I., Kanki, J.P., Liu, T.X., Look, A.T., and Chen, Z. (2004) Hematopoietic gene expression profile in zebrafish kidney marrow. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 101(46):16240-16245
Yang, H.W., Kutok, J.L., Lee, N.H., Piao, H.Y., Fletcher, C.D., Kanki, J.P., and Look, A.T. (2004) Targeted Expression of Human MYCN Selectively Causes Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in Transgenic Zebrafish. Cancer research. 64(20):7256-7262
Hsu, K., Traver, D., Kutok, J.L., Hagen, A., Liu, T.X., Paw, B.H., Rhodes, J., Berman, J., Zon, L.I., Kanki, J.P., and Look, A.T. (2004) The pu.1 promoter drives myeloid gene expression in zebrafish. Blood. 104(5):1291-1297
Langenau, D.M., Ferrando, A.A., Traver, D., Kutok, J.L., Hezel, J.P., Kanki, J.P., Zon, L.I., Look, A.T., and Trede, N.S. (2004) In vivo tracking of T cell development, ablation, and engraftment in transgenic zebrafish. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 101(19):7369-7374
Hsu, K., Look, A.T., and Kanki, J.P. (2004) Lessons from transgenic zebrafish expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the myeloid lineage. The Zebrafish: Genetics, Genomics and Informatics, 2nd ed., Methods Cell Biol.. 77:333-347
Berghmans, S., Morris, J.P. 4th, Kanki, J.P., and Look, A.T. (2004) Zebrafish sperm cryopreservation. The Zebrafish: Genetics, Genomics and Informatics, 2nd ed., Methods Cell Biol.. 77:645-659
Stewart, R.A., Look, A.T., Kanki, J.P., and Henion, P.D. (2004) Development of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system in zebrafish. The Zebrafish: Cellular and Developmental Biology,2nd Ed. Methods Cell Biol.. 76:237-260
Liu, T.X., Howlett, N.G., Deng, M., Langenau, D.M., Hsu, K., Rhodes, J., Kanki, J.P., D'Andrea, A.D., and Look, A.T. (2003) Knockdown of zebrafish fancd2 causes developmental abnormalities via p53-dependent apoptosis. Developmental Cell. 5(6):903-914
Morris IV, J.P., Berghmans, S., Zahrieh, D., Neuberg, D.S., Kanki, J.P., and Look, A.T. (2003) Zebrafish sperm cryopreservation with N,N-dimethylacetamide. Biotechniques. 35(5):956-958
Langenau, D.M., Traver, D., Ferrando, A.A., Kutok, J.L., Aster, J.C., Kanki, J.P., Lin, S., Prochownik, E., Trede, N.S., Zon, L.I., and Look, A.T. (2003) Myc-induced T cell leukemia in transgenic zebrafish. Science (New York, N.Y.). 299(5608):887-890
Langenau, D., Palomero, T., Kanki, J., Ferrando, A., Zhou, Y., Zon, L., and Look, A. (2002) Molecular cloning and developmental expression of Tlx (Hox11) genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Mechanisms of Development. 117(1-2):243-248
Liu, T.-X., Zhou, Y., Kanki, J.P., Deng, M., Rhodes, J., Yang, H.-W., Sheng, X.-M., Zon, L.I., and Look, A.T. (2002) Evolutionary conservation of zebrafish linkage group 14 with frequently deleted regions of human chromosome 5 in myeloid malignancies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 99(9):6136-6141
Rhodes, J., Kanki, J.P., and Look, A.T. (2001) The role of Pu.1 in zebrafish hematopoiesis. Blood. 98(11):276
Liu, T.X., Rhodes, J., Kanki, J.P., Hsu, K., Radomska, H.S., Deng, M., Piao, H.Y., Zhou, Y., Tenen, D.G., and Zon, L.I. (2001) The cloning and characterization of zebrafish CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha. Blood. 98(11):2924
Hsu, K., Rhodes, J., Liu, T.X., Kanki, J.P., Paw, B., Zon, L.I., and Look, A.T. (2001) Pu.1 is expressed by early granulocytic progenitors in the zebrafish. Blood. 98(11):63
Bennett, C.M., Kanki, J.P., Rhodes, J., Liu, T.X., Paw, B.H., Kieran, M.W., Langenau, D.M., Delahaye-Brown, A., Zon, L.I., Fleming, M.D., and Look, A.T. (2001) Myelopoiesis in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Blood. 98(3):643-651
Hsu, K., Kanki, J.P., and Look, A.T. (2001) Zebrafish myelopoiesis and blood cell development. Current opinion in hematology. 8(4):245-251
Liu, T.X., Zhou, Y., Kanki, J.P., Zon, L.I., and Look, A.T. (2000) Syntenic region shared by zebrafish and patients with 5q-syndrome. Blood. 96(11):380
Rhodes, J., Bennett, C.M., Kanki, J.P., Liu, T.X., Paw, B.H., Zon, L.I., and Look, A.T. (2000) Molecular analysis of zebrafish myelopoiesis. Blood. 96(11):3483
Bennett, C.M., Fleming, M.D., Kanki, J.P., Rhodes, J., Delahaye-Brown, A., Langenau, D.M., Liu, T.X., Paw, B.H., Zon, L.I., and Look, A.T. (2000) Genetic analysis of myelopoiesis the zebrafish. Blood. 96(11):4177
Kanki, J.P. and Kuwada, J.Y. (2000) Growth cones utilize both widespread and local directional cues in the zebrafish brain. Developmental Biology. 219(2):364-372
Warren, J.T., Jr., Chandrasekhar, A., Kanki, J.P., Rangarajan, R., Furley, A.J., and Kuwada, J.Y. (1999) Molecular cloning and developmental expression of a zebrafish axonal glycoprotein similar to TAG-1. Mechanisms of Development. 80(2):197-201
Kanki, J.P. and Ho, R.K. (1997) The development of the posterior body in zebrafish. Development (Cambridge, England). 124(4):881-893
Kanki, J.P., Chang, S., and Kuwada, J.Y. (1994) The molecular cloning and characterization of potential chick DM-GRASP homologs in zebrafish and mouse. Journal of neurobiology. 25:831-845

NON-ZEBRAFISH PUBLICATIONS
Kanki, J.P., and D.J. Donoghue, 1991 Progression from meiosis I to meiosis II in Xenopus oocytes requires de novo translation of the mosxe protooncogene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 88: 5794-5798.

Kanki, J.P., and J.W. Newport, 1991 The Cell Cycle Dependence of the Secretory Pathway in Developing Xenopus laevis. Dev. Bio. 146: 214-227.

Kanki, J.P., and J.W. Newport, 1991 The Cell Cycle Dependence of Protein Synthesis during Xenopus laevis Development. Dev. Bio. 146: 198-213.

Freeman, R.S., J.P. Kanki, S.M. Ballantyne, K.S. Pickham, and D.J. Donoghue, 1990 Effects of the v-mos oncogene on Xenopus development: Meiotic induction in oocytes and mitotic arrest in cleaving embryos. J. Cell Biol. 111: 533-542.

Freeman, R.S., K.M. Pickham, J.P. Kanki, B.A. Lee, S.V. Pena, and D.J. Donoghue, 1989 The Xenopus homolog of the mos proto-oncogene transforms mammalian fibroblasts and induces maturation of Xenopus oocytes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 5805-5809.

Newport, J.W., T. Spann, J. Kanki, and D. Forbes, 1985 The Role of Mitotic Factors in Regulating the Timing of the Midblastula Transition in Xenopus Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology Vol. L: 651-656.

Kanki, J.P., T.L. Martin, and H.M. Sinnamon, 1983 Activity of Neurons in the Anteromedial Cortex during Rewarding Brain Stimulation, Saccharine Consumption, and Orienting Behavior. Behavioral Brain Research 8: 69-84.

Kanki, J.P., and D.B. Adams, 1978 Ventrobasal Thalamus Necessary for Visually-Released Defensive Boxing of Rat. Physiology and Behavior 12: 7-12.