ZFIN ID: ZDB-PERS-041215-1
Scholz, Nat
Email: nathaniel.scholz@noaa.gov
URL: http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/research/divisions/ec/ecotox/fishneurobiology/index.cfm
Affiliation: Conservation Medicine Group
Address: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Fish Health Program Environmental Conservation Division National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Northwest Fisheries Science Center 2725 Montlake Blvd E Seattle, WA 98112 USA
Country: United States
Phone: (206) 860-3454
Fax: (206) 860-3335
ORCID ID:


BIOGRAPHY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS
Nat is a supervisory research zoologist and lead investigator for the Fish Neurobiology and Development Team at NOAA's Northwest Fisheries Science Center in Seattle. He earned combined B.A./M.A. degrees in marine biology from the Boston University Marine Program in Woods Hole and a Ph.D. in Zoology from the University of Washington. Before joining the Center, he was a Postdoctoral Associate with the National Academies of Science and Engineering (National Research Council). His research interests are in marine and freshwater conservation biology, with an emphasis on human land use activities, water quality, and the health of at-risk fish species, including threatened and endangered Pacific salmon. His major areas of expertise are in developmental biology, neurobiology, animal behavior, and behavioral ecology.


PUBLICATIONS
Gardner, L.D., Peck, K.A., Goetz, G.W., Linbo, T.L., Cameron, J., Scholz, N.L., Block, B.A., Incardona, J.P. (2019) Cardiac remodeling in response to embryonic crude oil exposure involves unconventional NKX family members and innate immunity genes. The Journal of experimental biology. 222(Pt 21):
Incardona, J.P., Scholz, N.L. (2016) The influence of heart developmental anatomy on cardiotoxicity-based adverse outcome pathways in fish. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 177:515-525
McIntyre, J., Edmunds, R., Redig, M., Mudrock, E., Davis, J., Incardona, J.P., Stark, J.D., Scholz, N. (2016) Confirmation of stormwater bioretention treatment effectiveness using molecular indicators of cardiovascular toxicity in developing fish. Environmental science & technology. 50(3):1561-9
McIntyre, J., Edmunds, R., Anulacion, B., Davis, J., Incardona, J.P., Stark, J.D., Scholz, N. (2016) Severe coal tar sealcoat runoff toxicity to fish is prevented by bioretention filtration. Environmental science & technology. 50(3):1570-8
Edmunds, R.C., Gill, J.A., Baldwin, D.H., Linbo, T.L., French, B.L., Brown, T.L., Esbaugh, A.J., Mager, E.M., Stieglitz, J., Hoenig, R., Benetti, D., Grosell, M., Scholz, N.L., Incardona, J.P. (2015) Corresponding morphological and molecular indicators of crude oil toxicity to the developing hearts of mahi mahi. Scientific Reports. 5:17326
McIntyre, J.K., Davis, J.W., Incardona, J.P., Stark, J.D., Anulacion, B.F., Scholz, N.L. (2014) Zebrafish and clean water technology: Assessing soil bioretention as a protective treatment for toxic urban runoff. The Science of the total environment. 500-501C:173-180
Incardona, J.P., Swarts, T.L., Edmunds, R.C., Linbo, T.L., Aquilina-Beck, A., Sloan, C.A., Gardner, L.D., Block, B.A., and Scholz, N.L. (2013) Exxon Valdez to Deepwater Horizon: Comparable toxicity of both crude oils to fish early life stages. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 142-143:303-316
Incardona, J.P., Linbo, T.L., and Scholz, N.L. (2011) Cardiac toxicity of 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is differentially dependent on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 isoform during zebrafish development. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 257(2):242-9
Tilton, F.A., Tilton, S.C., Bammler, T.K., Beyer, R.P., Stapleton, P.L., Scholz, N.L., and Gallagher, E.P. (2011) Transcriptional impact of organophosphate and metal mixtures on olfaction: Copper dominates the chlorpyrifos-induced response in adult zebrafish. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 102(3-4):205-215
Hatlen, K., Sloan, C.A., Burrows, D.G., Collier, T.K., Scholz, N.L., and Incardona, J.P. (2010) Natural sunlight and residual fuel oils are an acutely lethal combination for fish embryos. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 99(1):56-64
Linbo, T.L., Baldwin, D.H., McIntyre, J.K., and Scholz, N.L. (2009) Effects of water hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved organic carbon on the toxicity of copper to the lateral line of developing fish. Environmental toxicology and chemistry. 28(7):1455-1461
Colman, J.R., Baldwin, D., Johnson, L.L., and Scholz, N.L. (2009) Effects of the synthetic estrogen, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, on aggression and courtship behavior in male zebrafish (Danio rerio). Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 91(4):346-354
Incardona, J.P., Carls, M.G., Day, H.L., Sloan, C.A., Bolton, J.L., Collier, T.K., and Scholz, N.L. (2009) Cardiac arrhythmia is the primary response of embryonic Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) exposed to crude oil during weathering. Environmental science & technology. 43(1):201-207
Carls, M.G., Holland, L., Larsen, M., Collier, T.K., Scholz, N.L., and Incardona, J.P. (2008) Fish embryos are damaged by dissolved PAHs, not oil particles. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 88(2):121-127
Lema, S.C., Schultz, I.R., Scholz, N.L., Incardona, J.P., and Swanson, P. (2007) Neural defects and cardiac arrhythmia in fish larvae following embryonic exposure to 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE 47). Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 82(4):296-307
Incardona, J.P., Day, H.L., Collier, T.K., and Scholz, N.L. (2006) Developmental toxicity of 4-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in zebrafish is differentially dependent on AH receptor isoforms and hepatic cytochrome P4501A metabolism. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 217(3):308-321
Stehr, C.M., Linbo, T.L., Incardona, J.P., and Scholz, N.L. (2006) The Developmental Neurotoxicity of Fipronil: Notochord Degeneration and Locomotor Defects in Zebrafish Embryos and Larvae. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 92(1):270-278
Linbo, T.L., Stehr, C.M., Incardona, J.P., and Scholz, N.L. (2006) Dissolved copper triggers cell death in the peripheral mechanosensory system of larval fish. Environmental toxicology and chemistry. 25(2):597-603
Incardona, J.P., Carls, M.G., Teraoka, H., Sloan, C.A., Collier, T.K., and Scholz, N.L. (2005) Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Independent Toxicity of Weathered Crude Oil during Fish Development. Environmental health perspectives. 113(12):1755-1762
Incardona, J.P., Collier, T.K., and Scholz, N.L. (2004) Defects in cardiac function precede morphological abnormalities in fish embryos exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 196(2):191-205
Lefebvre, K.A., Trainer, V.L., and Scholz, N.L. (2004) Morphological abnormalities and sensorimotor deficits in larval fish exposed to dissolved saxitoxin. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 66(2):159-170

NON-ZEBRAFISH PUBLICATIONS
Scholz, N.L., Goy, M.F., Truman, J.W., and Graubard K. (1996). Nitric oxide and peptide neurohormones activate cGMP synthesis in the crab stomatogastric ganglion. Journal of Neuroscience, 16:1614-1622.

Prabakhar, S., Short, D.B., Scholz, N.L., and Goy, M.F. (1997). Identification of nitric oxide-sensitive and insensitive forms of cytoplasmic guanylate cyclase. Journal of Neurochemistry, 69:1650-1660.

Scholz, N.L., Graubard, K., and Truman, J.W. (1998). The NO/cGMP signaling pathway and the development of neural networks in postembryonic lobsters. Journal of Neurobiology, 34:208-226.

Baro, D.J., Ayali, A., French, L., Scholz, N.L., Labenia, J, Lanning, C.C., Graubard, K., and Harris-Warrick, R.M. (2000). Molecular underpinnings of motor pattern generation: Differential targeting of shal and shaker in the pyloric motor system. Journal of Neuroscience, 20:6619-6630.

Scholz, N.L. and Truman, J.W. (2000). Invertebrate models for studying NO-mediated signaling. In: Handbook of chemical neuroanatomy Vol. 17: Functional neuroanatomy of the nitric oxide system (H. Steinbusch, J. De Vente, S.R. Vincent, A. Bjorklund, and T. Hokfelt eds.). Elsevier. pp. 417-441.

Scholz, N.L., Truelove, N., French, B., Berejikian, B., Quinn, T, Casillas, E., and Collier, T.K. (2000). Diazinon disrupts antipredator and homing behaviors in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 57:1911-1918.

Scholz, N.L. (2001). NO/cGMP signaling and the flexible organization of motor behavior in crustaceans. American Zoologist. 41:156-167.

Scholz, N.L., de Vente, J., Truman, J.W., and Graubard, K. (2001). Neural network partitioning by NO and cGMP. Journal of Neuroscience, 21:1610-1618.

Scholz, N.L. and Tchobanoglous, G. (2001). Water pollution. In: McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 9th Edition. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Scholz, N.L., Labenia, J., de Vente, J., Graubard, K., and Goy, M.F. (2002). Expression of nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide-sensitive guanylate cyclase in the crustacean cardiac ganglion. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 454:158-167.

Baldwin, D.H., Sandahl, J.F., Labenia, J.S., and Scholz, N.L. (2003). Sublethal effects of copper on coho salmon: impacts on non-overlapping receptor populations in the peripheral olfactory nervous system. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 22:2266-2274.

Steel, E.A., Liermann M., McElhany P., Scholz, N.L., and Cullen, A. (2003). Managing uncertainty in habitat recovery planning. Pp. 74-89 in Ecosystem recovery planning for listed salmon: An integrated assessment approach for salmon habitat. U.S. Dept. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NWFSC-58, 183 p.

Sandahl, J.F., Baldwin, D.H., Jenkins, J.J., and Scholz, N.L. (2004). Odor-evoked field potentials as indicators of sublethal neurotoxicity in juvenile coho salmon exposed to copper, chlorpyrifos, or esfenvalerate. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 61:404-413.

Baldwin, D.H. and Scholz, N.L. (2005). The electro-olfactogram: an in vivo measure of peripheral olfactory function and sublethal neurotoxicity in fish. In: Techniques in aquatic toxicology, Volume 2. GK Ostrander (ed.), CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton, FL. In press.

Sandahl, J.F., Baldwin, D.H., Jenkins, J.J., and Scholz, N.L. (2005). Comparative thresholds for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and behavioral impairment in coho salmon exposed to chlorpyrifos. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, In press.