Sodium valproate increases activity of the sirtuin pathway resulting in beneficial effects for spinocerebellar ataxia-3 in vivo

Watchon, M., Luu, L., Robinson, K.J., Yuan, K.C., De Luca, A., Suddull, H.J., Tym, M.C., Guillemin, G.J., Cole, N.J., Nicholson, G.A., Chung, R.S., Lee, A., Laird, A.S.
Molecular brain   14: 128 (Journal)
Registered Authors
Chung, Roger, Cole, Nicholas, Laird, Angela, Luu, Luan, Watchon, Maxinne, Yuan, Kristy
Machado−Joseph disease, Neurodegeneration, Polyglutamine, Sodium valproate, Spinocerebellar ataxia−3, Valproic acid, Zebrafish
MeSH Terms
  • Acetylation
  • Animals
  • Animals, Genetically Modified
  • Ataxin-3/antagonists & inhibitors
  • Ataxin-3/genetics
  • Ataxin-3/metabolism
  • Autophagy/drug effects
  • Carbazoles/pharmacology
  • Carbazoles/therapeutic use
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
  • Drug Synergism
  • Genes, Reporter
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors/pharmacology
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  • Histones/metabolism
  • Humans
  • Machado-Joseph Disease/drug therapy*
  • Peptides/genetics
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism
  • Repressor Proteins/genetics
  • Repressor Proteins/metabolism
  • Resveratrol/pharmacology
  • Resveratrol/therapeutic use
  • Signal Transduction
  • Sirtuin 1/physiology
  • Sirtuins/drug effects*
  • Sirtuins/physiology
  • Swimming
  • Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion
  • Valproic Acid/pharmacology
  • Valproic Acid/therapeutic use*
  • Zebrafish
  • Zebrafish Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors
  • Zebrafish Proteins/genetics
  • Zebrafish Proteins/metabolism
34416891 Full text @ Mol. Brain
Machado-Joseph disease (MJD, also known as spinocerebellar ataxia type 3) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that impairs control and coordination of movement. Here we tested whether treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium valproate (valproate) prevented a movement phenotype that develops in larvae of a transgenic zebrafish model of the disease. We found that treatment with valproate improved the swimming of the MJD zebrafish, affected levels of acetylated histones 3 and 4, but also increased expression of polyglutamine expanded human ataxin-3. Proteomic analysis of protein lysates generated from the treated and untreated MJD zebrafish also predicted that valproate treatment had activated the sirtuin longevity signaling pathway and this was confirmed by findings of increased SIRT1 protein levels and sirtuin activity in valproate treated MJD zebrafish and HEK293 cells expressing ataxin-3 84Q, respectively. Treatment with resveratrol (another compound known to activate the sirtuin pathway), also improved swimming in the MJD zebrafish. Co-treatment with valproate alongside EX527, a SIRT1 activity inhibitor, prevented induction of autophagy by valproate and the beneficial effects of valproate on the movement in the MJD zebrafish, supporting that they were both dependent on sirtuin activity. These findings provide the first evidence of sodium valproate inducing activation of the sirtuin pathway. Further, they indicate that drugs that target the sirtuin pathway, including sodium valproate and resveratrol, warrant further investigation for the treatment of MJD and related neurodegenerative diseases.
Genes / Markers
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Mutations / Transgenics
Human Disease / Model
Sequence Targeting Reagents
Engineered Foreign Genes