ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-200624-2
Human ARF Specifically Inhibits Epimorphic Regeneration in the Zebrafish Heart
Lee, S., Hesse, R., Tamaki, S., Garland, C., Pomerantz, J.H.
Date: 2020
Source: Genes   11(6): (Journal)
Registered Authors:
Keywords: Alternative Reading Frame (ARF), cardiac regeneration, epimorphic regeneration
MeSH Terms:
  • ADP-Ribosylation Factor 1/genetics
  • Animals
  • Cell Proliferation/genetics
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16/genetics*
  • Extremities/growth & development
  • Extremities/physiopathology
  • Genes, Tumor Suppressor
  • Heart/growth & development*
  • Heart/physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Myocardial Infarction/genetics
  • Myocardial Infarction/rehabilitation
  • Myocardial Infarction/therapy*
  • Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism
  • Regeneration/genetics*
  • Zebrafish/genetics
  • Zebrafish/growth & development
PubMed: 32570883 Full text @ Genes (Basel)
The Alternative Reading Frame (ARF) protein is a tumor suppressor encoded by the Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A gene in mammals but not lower regenerative vertebrates, and has been previously implicated as a context-sensitive suppressor of regeneration in murine skeletal muscle and humanized ARF-expressing zebrafish fins. This study extends our investigation of the role of ARF in the regeneration of other solid tissues, including the zebrafish heart and the mammalian digit. Heart regeneration after cryoinjury was used to mimic massive myocardial infarction. ARF gene expression was upregulated during the cardiac regenerative process and slowed the rate of morphological recovery. ARF specifically impacts cardiomyocytes, neovascularization, and the endothelial-mesenchymal transition, while not affecting epicardial proliferation. This suggests that in the context of regeneration, ARF is specifically expressed in cells undergoing dedifferentiation. To investigate ARF as a suppressor of epimorphic regeneration in mammalian systems, we also tested whether the absence of ARF was permissive for murine digit regeneration, but found that ARF absence alone was insufficient to significantly alter digit restoration. These findings provide additional evidence that ARF suppresses epimorphic regeneration, but suggests that modulation of ARF alone is insufficient to permit regeneration.