ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-191231-22
Cilia in the developing zebrafish ear
Whitfield, T.T.
Date: 2020
Source: Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences   375: 20190163 (Review)
Registered Authors: Whitfield, Tanya T.
Keywords: kinocilia, motile cilia, otic vesicle, otolith, sensory hair cell, zebrafish
MeSH Terms:
  • Animals
  • Cell Movement
  • Cilia/physiology*
  • Ear, Inner/embryology*
  • Ear, Inner/physiology
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian/embryology
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian/physiology
  • Hair Cells, Auditory/physiology
  • Lateral Line System/embryology*
  • Lateral Line System/physiology
  • Otolithic Membrane/embryology
  • Zebrafish/embryology
  • Zebrafish/physiology*
PubMed: 31884918 Full text @ Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond., Series B
The inner ear, which mediates the senses of hearing and balance, derives from a simple ectodermal vesicle in the vertebrate embryo. In the zebrafish, the otic placode and vesicle express a whole suite of genes required for ciliogenesis and ciliary motility. Every cell of the otic epithelium is ciliated at early stages; at least three different ciliary subtypes can be distinguished on the basis of length, motility, genetic requirements and function. In the early otic vesicle, most cilia are short and immotile. Long, immotile kinocilia on the first sensory hair cells tether the otoliths, biomineralized aggregates of calcium carbonate and protein. Small numbers of motile cilia at the poles of the otic vesicle contribute to the accuracy of otolith tethering, but neither the presence of cilia nor ciliary motility is absolutely required for this process. Instead, otolith tethering is dependent on the presence of hair cells and the function of the glycoprotein Otogelin. Otic cilia or ciliary proteins also mediate sensitivity to ototoxins and coordinate responses to extracellular signals. Other studies are beginning to unravel the role of ciliary proteins in cellular compartments other than the kinocilium, where they are important for the integrity and survival of the sensory hair cell. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Unity and diversity of cilia in locomotion and transport'.