Uribe, V., Ramadass, R., Dogra, D., Rasouli, S.J., Gunawan, F., Nakajima, H., Chiba, A., Reischauer, S., Mochizuki, N., Stainier, D.Y.R. (2018) In vivo analysis of cardiomyocyte proliferation during trabeculation.. Development (Cambridge, England). 145(14):.
Cardiomyocyte proliferation is crucial for cardiac growth, patterning and regeneration; however, few studies have investigated the behavior of dividing cardiomyocytes in vivo Here, we use time-lapse imaging of beating hearts in combination with the FUCCI system to monitor the behavior of proliferating cardiomyocytes in developing zebrafish. Confirming in vitro observations, sarcomere disassembly, as well as changes in cell shape and volume, precede cardiomyocyte cytokinesis. Notably, cardiomyocytes in zebrafish embryos and young larvae mostly divide parallel to the myocardial wall in both the compact and trabecular layers, and cardiomyocyte proliferation is more frequent in the trabecular layer. While analyzing known regulators of cardiomyocyte proliferation, we observed that the Nrg/ErbB2 and TGFβ signaling pathways differentially affect compact and trabecular layer cardiomyocytes, indicating that distinct mechanisms drive proliferation in these two layers. In summary, our data indicate that, in zebrafish, cardiomyocyte proliferation is essential for trabecular growth, but not initiation, and set the stage to further investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms driving cardiomyocyte proliferation in vivo.