ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-180510-2
Pregnancy associated plasma protein-aa (Pappaa) regulates photoreceptor synaptic development to mediate visually guided behavior
Miller, A.H., Howe, H.B., Krause, B.M., Friedle, S.A., Banks, M.I., Perkins, B.D., Wolman, M.A.
Date: 2018
Source: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience   38(22): 5220-5236 (Journal)
Registered Authors: Perkins, Brian, Wolman, Marc
Keywords: none
MeSH Terms:
  • Animals
  • Behavior, Animal/physiology
  • Cues
  • Electrophysiological Phenomena/physiology
  • Female
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
  • Photic Stimulation
  • Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate/metabolism
  • Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate/physiology*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy, Animal/physiology*
  • Psychomotor Performance/physiology*
  • Retinal Bipolar Cells/physiology
  • Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells/physiology
  • Retinal Photoreceptor Cell Inner Segment/metabolism
  • Retinal Photoreceptor Cell Inner Segment/physiology
  • Synapses/metabolism
  • Synapses/physiology*
  • Zebrafish
  • Zebrafish Proteins
PubMed: 29739870 Full text @ J. Neurosci.
To guide behavior, sensory systems detect the onset and offset of stimuli and process these distinct inputs via parallel pathways. In the retina, this strategy is implemented by splitting neural signals for light onset and offset via synapses connecting photoreceptors to ON and OFF bipolar cells, respectively. It remains poorly understood which molecular cues establish the architecture of this synaptic configuration to split light-onset and light-offset signals. A mutant with reduced synapses between photoreceptors and one bipolar cell type, but not the other, could reveal a critical cue. From this approach, we report a novel synaptic role for pregnancy-associated plasma protein aa (pappaa) in promoting the structure and function of cone synapses that transmit light-offset information. Electrophysiological and behavioral analyses indicated pappaa mutant zebrafish have dysfunctional cone-to-OFF bipolar cell synapses and impaired responses to light offset, but intact cone-to-ON bipolar cell synapses and light-onset responses. Ultrastructural analyses of pappaa mutant cones showed a lack of presynaptic domains at synapses with OFF bipolar cells. pappaa is expressed postsynaptically to the cones during retinal synaptogenesis and encodes a secreted metalloprotease known to stimulate insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signaling. Induction of dominant-negative IGF1 receptor expression during synaptogenesis reduced light-offset responses. Conversely, stimulating IGF1 signaling at this time improved pappaa mutants' light-offset responses and cone presynaptic structures. Together, our results indicate Pappaa-regulated IGF1 signaling as a novel pathway that establishes how cone synapses convey light-offset signals to guide behavior.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Distinct sensory inputs, like stimulus onset and offset, are often split at distinct synapses into parallel circuits for processing. In the retina, photoreceptors and ON and OFF bipolar cells form discrete synapses to split neural signals coding light onset and offset, respectively. The molecular cues that establish this synaptic configuration to specifically convey light onset or offset remain unclear. Our work reveals a novel cue: pregnancy-associated plasma protein aa (pappaa), which regulates photoreceptor synaptic structure and function to specifically transmit light-offset information. Pappaa is a metalloprotease that stimulates local insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signaling. IGF1 promotes various aspects of synaptic development and function and is broadly expressed, thus requiring local regulators, like Pappaa, to govern its specificity.