Schall, K.A., Thornton, M.E., Isani, M., Holoyda, K.A., Hou, X., Lien, C.L., Grubbs, B.H., Grikscheit, T.C. (2017) Short bowel syndrome results in increased gene expression associated with proliferation, inflammation, bile acid synthesis and immune system activation: RNA sequencing a zebrafish SBS model. BMC Genomics. 18:23.
Background Much of the morbidity associated with short bowel syndrome (SBS) is attributed to effects of decreased enteral nutrition and administration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). We hypothesized that acute SBS alone has significant effects on gene expression beyond epithelial proliferation, and tested this in a zebrafish SBS model.
Methods In a model of SBS in zebrafish (laparotomy, proximal stoma, distal ligation, n = 29) or sham (laparotomy alone, n = 28) surgery, RNA-Seq was performed after 2 weeks. The proximal intestine was harvested and RNA isolated. The three samples from each group with the highest amount of RNA were spiked with external RNA controls consortium (ERCC) controls, sequenced and aligned to reference genome with gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis performed. Gene expression of ctnnb1, ccnb1, ccnd1, cyp7a1a, dkk3, ifng1-2, igf2a, il1b, lef1, nos2b, saa1, stat3, tnfa and wnt5a were confirmed to be elevated in SBS by RT-qPCR.
Results RNA-seq analysis identified 1346 significantly upregulated genes and 678 significantly downregulated genes in SBS zebrafish intestine compared to sham with Ingenuity analysis. The upregulated genes were involved in cell proliferation, acute phase response signaling, innate and adaptive immunity, bile acid regulation, production of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species, cellular barrier and coagulation. The downregulated genes were involved in folate synthesis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, fatty-acid oxidation and activation and drug and steroid metabolism. RT-qPCR confirmed gene expression differences from RNA-Sequencing.
Conclusion Changes of gene expression after 2 weeks of SBS indicate complex and extensive alterations of multiple pathways, some previously implicated as effects of TPN. The systemic sequelae of SBS alone are significant and indicate multiple targets for investigating future therapies.